Backslash Commands¶
This section lists all supported backslash commands. Note that only a subset of the commands listed will be available at any time.
Alphabetical Command List¶
Table 44 lists all backslash commands in alphabetical order.
Command 
Category 
Description 

! 
Operator 
Factorial operator 
“A 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘A’ with umlaut (Ä) 
“a 
Special Character 
Lowercase “a” with umlaut (ä) 
“E 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘E’ with umlaut (Ë) 
“e 
Special Character 
Lowercase “e” with umlaut (ë) 
“H 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘H’ with umlaut (Ḧ) 
“h 
Special Character 
Lowercase “h” with umlaut (ḧ) 
“I 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘I’ with umlaut (Ï) 
“i 
Special Character 
Lowercase “i” with umlaut (ï) 
“O 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘O’ with umlaut (Ö) 
“o 
Special Character 
Lowercase “o” with umlaut (ӧ) 
“t 
Special Character 
Lowercase “t” with umlaut (ẗ) 
“U 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘U’ with umlaut (Ü) 
“u 
Special Character 
Lowercase “u” with umlaut (ü) 
“W 
Special Character 
Uppercase “W” with umlaut (Ẅ) 
“w 
Special Character 
Lowercase “w” with umlaut (ẅ) 
“X 
Special Character 
Uppercase “X” with umlaut (Ẍ) 
“x 
Special Character 
Lowercase “x” with umlaut (ẍ) 
“y 
Special Character 
Lowercase “y” with umlaut (ӱ) 
‘A 
Special Character 
Uppercase “A” with acute (Á) 
‘a 
Special Character 
Lowercase “a” with acute (á) 
‘C 
Special Character 
Uppercase “C” with acute (Ć) 
‘c 
Special Character 
Lowercase “c” with acute (ć) 
‘E 
Special Character 
Uppercase “E” with acute (É) 
‘e 
Special Character 
Lowercase “e” with acute (é) 
‘G 
Special Character 
Uppercase “G” with acute (Ǵ) 
‘g 
Special Character 
Lowercase “g” with acute (ǵ) 
‘I 
Special Character 
Uppercase “I” with acute (Í) 
‘i 
Special Character 
Lowercase “i” with acute (í) 
‘k 
Special Character 
Lowercase “k” with acute (ḱ) 
‘M 
Special Character 
Uppercase “M” with acute (Ḿ) 
‘m 
Special Character 
Lowercase “m” with acute (ḿ) 
‘O 
Special Character 
Uppercase “O” with acute (Ó) 
‘o 
Special Character 
Lowercase “o” with acute (ó) 
‘P 
Special Character 
Uppercase “P” with acute (Ṕ) 
‘p 
Special Character 
Lowercase “p” with acute (ṕ) 
‘U 
Special Character 
Uppercase “U” with acute (Ú) 
‘u 
Special Character 
Lowercase “u” with acute (ú) 
‘W 
Special Character 
Uppercase “W” with acute (Ẃ) 
‘w 
Special Character 
Lowercase “w” with acute (ẃ) 
‘Y 
Special Character 
Uppercase “Y” with acute (Ý) 
‘y 
Special Character 
Lowercase “y” with acute (ý) 
( 
Operator 
Parenthesis grouping operator. 
* 
Operator 
Multiplication operator. Multiplies two values 
** 
Operator 
Power operator 
+ 
Operator 
Addition operator. 
 
Operator 
Subtraction operator. Subtracts two values. You can also use this operator to perform set relative complement or set difference operations. 
.A 
Special Character 
Uppercase “A” with dot above (Ȧ) 
.a 
Special Character 
Lowercase “a” with dot above (ȧ) 
.B 
Special Character 
Uppercase “B” with dot above (Ḃ) 
.b 
Special Character 
Lowercase “b” with dot above (ḃ) 
.C 
Special Character 
Uppercase “C” with dot above (Ċ) 
.c 
Special Character 
Lowercase “c” with dot above (ċ) 
.D 
Special Character 
Uppercase “D” with dot above (Ḋ) 
.d 
Special Character 
Lowercase “d” with dot above (ḋ) 
.E 
Special Character 
Uppercase “E” with dot above (Ė) 
.e 
Special Character 
Lowercase “e” with dot above (ė) 
.F 
Special Character 
Uppercase “F” with dot above (Ḟ) 
.f 
Special Character 
Lowercase “f” with dot above (ḟ) 
.G 
Special Character 
Uppercase “G” with dot above (Ġ) 
.g 
Special Character 
Lowercase “g” with dot above (ġ) 
.H 
Special Character 
Uppercase “H” with dot above (Ḣ) 
.h 
Special Character 
Lowercase “h” with dot above (ḣ) 
.I 
Special Character 
Uppercase “I” with dot above (İ) 
.M 
Special Character 
Uppercase “M” with dot above (Ṁ) 
.m 
Special Character 
Lowercase “m” with dot above (ṁ) 
.N 
Special Character 
Uppercase “N” with dot above (Ṅ) 
.n 
Special Character 
Lowercase “n” with dot above (ṅ) 
.O 
Special Character 
Uppercase “O” with dot above (Ȯ) 
.o 
Special Character 
Lowercase “o” with dot above (ȯ) 
.P 
Special Character 
Uppercase “P” with dot above (Ṗ) 
.p 
Special Character 
Lowercase “p” with dot above (ṗ) 
.R 
Special Character 
Uppercase “R” with dot above (Ṙ) 
.r 
Special Character 
Lowercase “r” with dot above (ṙ) 
.S 
Special Character 
Uppercase “S” with dot above (Ṡ) 
.s 
Special Character 
Lowercase “s” with dot above (ṡ) 
.T 
Special Character 
Uppercase “T” with dot above (Ṫ) 
.t 
Special Character 
Lowercase “t” with dot above (ṫ) 
.W 
Special Character 
Uppercase “W” with dot above (Ẇ) 
.w 
Special Character 
Lowercase “w” with dot above (ẇ) 
.X 
Special Character 
Uppercase “X” with dot above (Ẋ) 
.x 
Special Character 
Lowercase “x” with dot above (ẋ) 
.Y 
Special Character 
Uppercase “Y” with dot above (Ẏ) 
.y 
Special Character 
Lowercase “y” with dot above (ẏ) 
.Z 
Special Character 
Uppercase “Z” with dot above (Ż) 
.z 
Special Character 
Lowercase “z” with dot above (ż) 
< 
Operator 
Less than relational operator. 
= 
Operator 
Assignment operator and is equal to relational operator. Assign value to a variable, define a function, or compare two values. 
=A 
Special Character 
Uppercase “A” with macron (Ā) 
=a 
Special Character 
Lowercase “a” with macron (ā) 
=E 
Special Character 
Uppercase “E” with macron (Ē) 
=e 
Special Character 
Lowercase “e” with macron (ē) 
=G 
Special Character 
Uppercase “G” with macron (Ḡ) 
=g 
Special Character 
Lowercase “g” with macron (ḡ) 
=I 
Special Character 
Uppercase “I” with macron (Ī) 
=l 
Special Character 
Lowercase “l” with macron (ī) 
=O 
Special Character 
Uppercase “O” with macron (Ō) 
=o 
Special Character 
Lowercase “o” with macron (ō) 
=U 
Special Character 
Uppercase “U” with macron (Ū) 
=u 
Special Character 
Lowercase “u” with macron (ū) 
> 
Operator 
Greater than relational operator. 
[ 
Operator 
Brackets grouping operator. 
\ 
Special Character 
Backslash 
^ 
Operator 
Power operator 
^A 
Special Character 
Uppercase “A” with circumflex (Â) 
^a 
Special Character 
Lowercase “a” with circumflex (â) 
^C 
Special Character 
Uppercase “C” with circumflex (Ĉ) 
^c 
Special Character 
Lowercase “c” with circumflex (ĉ) 
^E 
Special Character 
Uppercase “E” with circumflex (Ê) 
^e 
Special Character 
Lowercase “e” with circumflex (ê) 
^G 
Special Character 
Uppercase “G” with circumflex (Ĝ) 
^g 
Special Character 
Lowercase “g” with circumflex (ĝ) 
^H 
Special Character 
Uppercase “H” with circumflex (Ĥ) 
^h 
Special Character 
Lowercase “h” with circumflex (ĥ) 
^I 
Special Character 
Uppercase “I” with circumflex (Î) 
^i 
Special Character 
Lowercase “i” with circumflex (î) 
^J 
Special Character 
Uppercase “J” with circumflex (Ĵ) 
^j 
Special Character 
Lowercase “j” with circumflex (ĵ) 
^O 
Special Character 
Uppercase “O” with circumflex (Ô) 
^o 
Special Character 
Lowercase “o” with circumflex (ô) 
^S 
Special Character 
Uppercase “S” with circumflex (Ŝ) 
^s 
Special Character 
Lowercase “s” with circumflex (ŝ) 
^U 
Special Character 
Uppercase “U” with circumflex (Û) 
^u 
Special Character 
Lowercase “u” with circumflex (û) 
^W 
Special Character 
Uppercase “W” with circumflex (Ŵ) 
^w 
Special Character 
Lowercase “w” with circumflex (ŵ) 
^Y 
Special Character 
Uppercase “Y” with circumflex (Ŷ) 
^y 
Special Character 
Lowercase “y” with circumflex (ŷ) 
^Z 
Special Character 
Uppercase “Z” with circumflex (Ẑ) 
^z 
Special Character 
Lowercase “z” with circumflex (ẑ) 
_ 
Operator 
Subscripting operator, row & column 
Operator 
Subscripting operator, single index 

`A 
Special Character 
Uppercase “A” with grave (À) 
`a 
Special Character 
Lowercase “a” with grave (à) 
`E 
Special Character 
Uppercase “E” with grave (È) 
`e 
Special Character 
Lowercase “e” with grave (è) 
`I 
Special Character 
Uppercase “I” with grave (Ì) 
`i 
Special Character 
Lowercase “i” with grave (ì) 
`K 
Special Character 
Uppercase “K” with grave (Ḱ) 
`N 
Special Character 
Uppercase “N” with grave (Ǹ) 
`n 
Special Character 
Lowercase “n” with grave (ǹ) 
`O 
Special Character 
Uppercase “O” with grave (Ò) 
`o 
Special Character 
Lowercase “o” with grave (ò) 
`U 
Special Character 
Uppercase “U” with grave (Ù) 
`u 
Special Character 
Lowercase “u” with grave (ù) 
`W 
Special Character 
Uppercase “W” with grave (Ẁ) 
`w 
Special Character 
Lowercase “w” with grave (ẁ) 
`Y 
Special Character 
Uppercase “Y” with grave (Ỳ) 
`y 
Special Character 
Lowercase “y” with grave (ỳ) 
{ 
Operator 
Braces grouping operator. 
Operator 
Define a compound statement or block. 

~A 
Special Character 
Uppercase “A” with tilde (Ã) 
~a 
Special Character 
Lowercase “a” with tilde (ã) 
~I 
Special Character 
Uppercase “I” with tilde (Ĩ) 
~i 
Special Character 
Lowercase “i” with tilde (ĩ) 
~O 
Special Character 
Uppercase “O” with tilde (Õ) 
~o 
Special Character 
Lowercase “o” with tilde (õ) 
~V 
Special Character 
Uppercase “V” with tilde (Ṽ) 
~v 
Special Character 
Lowercase “v” with tilde (ṽ) 
~Y 
Special Character 
Uppercase “Y” with tilde (Ỹ) 
~y 
Special Character 
Lowercase “y” with tilde (ỹ) 
abs 
Function 
Absolute value, magnitude, determinant, and set cardinality 
adjoint 
Function 
Performs a conjugate transpose of a matrix. 
AE 
Special Character 
Uppercase ash (Æ) 
ae 
Special Character 
Lowercase ash (æ) 
aleph 
Special Character 
Hebrew character aleph (ℵ) 
alignc 
Formatting 
Center text and other elements. 
alignj 
Formatting 
Justify text. 
alignl 
Formatting 
Left align text and other elements. 
alignr 
Formatting 
Right align text and other elements. 
Alpha 
Greek Character 
Greek uppercase alpha (Α) 
alpha 
Greek Character 
Greek lowercase alpha (α) 
alphabet 
Function 
Determine the unique members of a set, tuple, or matrix. 
arccos 
Function 
Arccosine function 
arccot 
Function 
Arccotangent function 
arccsc 
Function 
Arccosecant function 
arcosh 
Function 
Area hyperbolic cosine function 
arcoth 
Function 
Area hyperbolic cotangent function 
arcsch 
Function 
Area hyperbolic cosecant function 
arcsec 
Function 
Arcsecant function 
arcsin 
Function 
Arcsine function 
arctan 
Function 
Arctangent function 
arsech 
Function 
Area hyperbolic secant function 
arsinh 
Function 
Area hyperbolic sine function 
artanh 
Function 
Area hyperbolic tangent function 
average 
Function 
Calculates the average of scalar values in the supplied list. 
backslash 
Special Character 
Backslash 
bc 
Operator 
Calculate a value based on a set of conditions. 
bcfmt 
Formatting 
Modify a brace conditional operator 
bD 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘D’ with bar under (Ḏ) 
bd 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘d’ with bar under (ḏ) 
bdock 
Application 
Show/hide the Block dock. 
begin{array} 
Operator 
Insert a new matrix 
Beta 
Greek Character 
Greek uppercase beta (Β) 
beta 
Greek Character 
Greek lowercase beta (β) 
betafn 
Function 
Beta function 
beth 
Special Character 
Hebrew character beth (ב) 
bf 
Formatting 
Boldface text 
bfmt 
Formatting 
Change the block/paragraph format. 
bgcolor 
Formatting 
Highlighting/Font background color 
bigcap 
Operator 
Nary disjoint union operator. 
bigcup 
Operator 
Nary union operator. 
binomialc 
Function 
Calculates the binomial cumulative distribution function. 
binomialp 
Function 
Calculates the binomial probability mass function 
binomialv 
Function 
Returns one or more random numbers in an binomial distribution. 
bmdock 
Application 
Show/hide the Basic Math dock 
bset 
Special Value 
Boolean type 
cap 
Operator 
Set binary intersection operator. 
cases 
Operator 
Calculate a value based on a set of conditions. 
cauchyc 
Function 
Calculates the Cauchy cumulative distribution function 
cauchyp 
Function 
Calculates the Cauchy probability density function. 
cauchyq 
Function 
Calculates the Cauchy quantile function. 
cauchyv 
Function 
Returns one or more random numbers in a Cauchy distribution. 
cD 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘D’ with cedilla (Ḑ) 
cd 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘d’ with cedilla (ḑ) 
cdock 
Application 
Show/hide the Character dock 
cE 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘E’ with cedilla (Ȩ) 
ce 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘e’ with cedilla (ȩ) 
ceil 
Operator 
Ceiling, next higher integer value 
cfmt 
Formatting 
Change the character format. 
cG 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘G’ with cedilla (Ģ) 
cg 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘g’ with cedilla (ģ) 
cH 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘H’ with cedilla (Ḩ) 
ch 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘h’ with cedilla (ḩ) 
Chi 
Greek Character 
Greek uppercase chi (Χ) 
chi 
Greek Character 
Greek lowercase chi (χ) 
chisquaredc 
Function 
Calculates the chisquared cumulative distribution function. 
chisquaredp 
Function 
Calculates the chisquared distribution probability density function. 
chisquaredq 
Function 
Calculates the chisquared distribution quantile function. 
chisquaredv 
Function 
Returns one or more random numbers in a chisquared distribution. 
cholesky 
Function 
Performs Cholesky decomposition (creating \(\mathbf{L} \times \mathbf{L} ^ H\)) 
circ 
Operator 
Calculates the Hadamard product of two matricies. 
cK 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘K’ with cedilla (Ķ) 
ck 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘k’ with cedilla (ķ) 
cL 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘L’ with cedilla (Ļ) 
cl 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘l’ with cedilla (ļ) 
clrbkp 
Debugging 
Clears all breakpoints 
cN 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘N’ with cedilla (Ņ) 
cn 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘n’ with cedilla (ņ) 
color 
Formatting 
Font color 
condnum 
Function 
Calculates the approximate condition number of a matrix. 
conj 
Operator 
Complex conjugate operator. 
conjtran 
Function 
Performs a conjugate transpose of a matrix. 
copyright 
Special Character 
Copyright (©) 
cos 
Function 
Cosine function 
cosh 
Function 
Hyperbolic cosine function 
cot 
Function 
Cotangent function 
coth 
Function 
Hyperbolic cotangent function 
count 
Function 
Counts scalar values in the supplied list. 
cprod 
Operator 
Cartesian product operator. 
cpy 
Application 
Copy 
cR 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘R’ with cedilla (Ŗ) 
cr 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘r’ with cedilla (ŗ) 
cS 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘S’ with cedilla (Ş) 
csc 
Function 
Cosecant function 
csch 
Function 
Hyperbolic cosecant function 
cs 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘s’ with cedilla (ş) 
cset 
Special Value 
Complex type 
cT 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘T’ with cedilla (Ţ) 
ct 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘t’ with cedilla (ţ) 
cup 
Operator 
Set binary union operator. 
cut 
Application 
Cut 
dA 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘A’ with dot below (Ạ) 
da 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘a’ with dot below (ạ) 
dag 
Special Character 
Daggar (†) 
daleth 
Special Character 
Hebrew character daleth (ד) 
dB 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘B’ with dot below (Ḅ) 
db 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘b’ with dot below (ḅ) 
dct2 
Function 
Calculates the DCT, type 2, in one or two dimensions 
dct3 
Function 
Calculates the DCT, type 3, in one or two dimensions 
ddat 
Special Character 
Double dagger (‡) 
dD 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘D’ with dot below (Ḍ) 
de 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘e’ with dot below (ẹ) 
Delta 
Greek Character 
Greek uppercase delta (Δ) 
delta 
Greek Character 
Greek lowercase delta (δ) 
dft 
Function 
Calculates the DFT in one or two dimensions 
DH 
Special Character 
Futhark uppercase eth (Ð) 
dh 
Special Character 
Futhark lowercase eth (ð) 
diagent 
Function 
Returns a column matrix holding the diagnonal entries. 
diagonal 
Function 
Returns a diagonal matrix using the supplied values. 
dI 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘I’ with dot below (Ị) 
di 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘i’ with dot below (ị) 
Digamma 
Greek Character 
Greek uppercase digamma (Ϝ) 
digamma 
Special Character 
Greek lowercase digamma (ϝ) 
div 
Operator 
Division operator. Divides two values 
dju 
Operator 
Disjoint union operator. 
dK 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘K’ with dot below (Ḳ) 
dk 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘k’ with dot below (ḳ) 
dL 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘L’ with dot below (Ḷ) 
dl 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘l’ with dot below (ḷ) 
dM 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘M’ with dot below (Ṃ) 
dm 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘m’ with dot below (ṃ) 
dN 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘N’ with dot below (Ṇ) 
dn 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘n’ with dot below (ṇ) 
dO 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘O’ with dot below (Ọ) 
do 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘o’ with dot below (ọ) 
Downarrow 
Special Character 
Downward arrow (⇓) 
downarrow 
Special Character 
Downward arrow (↓) 
dR 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘R’ with dot below (Ṛ) 
dr 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘r’ with dot below (ṛ) 
dS 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘S’ with dot below (Ṣ) 
ds 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘s’ with dot below (ṣ) 
dT 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘T’ with dot below (Ṭ) 
dt 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘t’ with dot below (ṭ) 
dU 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘U’ with dot below (Ụ) 
du 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘u’ with dot below (ụ) 
dV 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘V’ with dot below (Ṿ) 
dv 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘v’ with dot below (ṿ) 
dW 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘W’ with dot below (Ẉ) 
dw 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘w’ with dot below (ẉ) 
dY 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘Y’ with dot below (Ỵ) 
dy 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘y’ with dot below (ỵ) 
dZ 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘Z’ with dot below (Ẓ) 
dz 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘z’ with dot below (ẓ) 
d{H} 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘H’ with dot below (Ḥ) 
d{h} 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘h’ with dot below (ḥ) 
econst 
Special Value 
Special value e, 2.718… 
eigenvectors 
Function 
Calculates eigenvectors, eigenvalues, and Schur decomposition. 
elif 
Control Flow 
Elseif conditional operator. 
else 
Control Flow 
Else conditional operator. 
emptysetconst 
Special Value 
Special value null set 
enorm 
Function 
Calculates the Euclidean norm of a matrix. 
Epsilon 
Greek Character 
Greek uppercase epsilon (Ε) 
epsilonconst 
Special Value 
Special value machine epsilon 
epsilon 
Greek Character 
Greek lowercase epsilon (ε) 
equilibrate 
Function 
Equilibrates a matrix. 
erfc 
Function 
Complementary error function 
erf 
Function 
Error function 
erfinv 
Function 
Inverse error function 
Eta 
Greek Character 
Greek uppercase eta (Η) 
eta 
Greek Character 
Greek lowercase eta (η) 
examples 
Application 
Open an example 
exphtml 
Application 
Exports your program as a document in HTML format. 
expimg 
Application 
Exports an element of your program as an image. 
explatex 
Application 
Exports your program as a document in LaTeX format. 
explib 
Application 
Exports your program as a dynamic library. 
expobj 
Application 
Exports your program as a binary object. 
exponentialc 
Function 
Calculates the exponential cumulative distribution function. 
exponentialp 
Function 
Calculates the exponential probability density function. 
exponentialq 
Function 
Calculates the exponential quantile function. 
exponentialv 
Function 
Returns one or more random numbers in an exponential distribution. 
exppdf 
Application 
Exports your program as a document in PDF format. 
fact 
Operator 
Factorial operator. 
false 
Special Value 
Special value ‘false’ 
fclose 
Application 
Closes the current program file. 
feedback 
Application 
Tell us how to make you more successful. 
fileclose 
Function 
Closes an open file. 
filedelete 
Function 
Deletes a file 
fileexists 
Function 
Determines if a file exists. 
fileopenread 
Function 
Opens a file for reading. 
fileopenwrite 
Function 
Opens a file for reading and writing, content will be preserved. 
fileopenwritetruncate 
Function 
Opens a file for reading and writing, destroying existing content. 
filereadbyte 
Function 
Reads a single byte from a file. 
filereadinteger 
Function 
Reads an integer from a file. 
filereadreal 
Function 
Reads a real value from a file. 
filereadstring 
Function 
Reads a string of text from a file. 
fileseek 
Function 
Seeks to a specific location in a file. 
filewritebyte 
Function 
Writes a single byte to a file. 
filewriteinteger 
Function 
Writes an integer value to a file. 
filewritereal 
Function 
Writes a real value to a file. 
filewritestring 
Function 
Writes a string of text to a file. 
find 
Function 
Finds a subtuple within a tuple. Also works for strings. 
fliplr 
Function 
Flip a matrix from left to right, reversing column order. 
flipud 
Function 
Flip a matrix from top to bottom, reversing row order. 
floor 
Operator 
Floor, next lower integer value 
fnew 
Application 
Creates a new program file 
fn 
Function 
Define or use a function. 
fopen 
Application 
Opens an existing program file. 
forall 
Operator 
Iterate through sets, tuple, and matrix values. 
foreach 
Operator 
Iterate through sets, tuple, and matrix values. 
frac 
Operator 
Fraction (division) operator. Divides two values. 
fsaveas 
Application 
Saves the current program under a new name. 
fsave 
Application 
Saves the current program. 
Gamma 
Greek Character 
Greek uppercase gamma (Γ) 
gammac 
Function 
Calculates the gamma cumulative distribution function. 
gammafn 
Function 
Gamma function 
gamma 
Greek Character 
Greek lowercase gamma (γ) 
gammap 
Function 
Calculates the gamma probability density function. 
gammaq 
Function 
Calculates the gamma quantile function. 
gammav 
Function 
Returns one or more random numbers in a gamma distribution. 
geometricc 
Function 
Calculates the geometric cumulative distribution function. 
geometricp 
Function 
Calculates the geometric probability mass function. 
geometricv 
Function 
Returns one or more random numbers in an geometric distribution. 
geq 
Operator 
Greater than or equal to relational operator. 
getstarted 
Application 
Start here ! 
gimel 
Special Character 
Hebrew character gimel (ג) 
gt 
Operator 
Greater than relational operator. 
guillemotleft 
Special Character 
Left guillemet («) 
guillemotright 
Special Character 
Right guillemet (») 
hadamard 
Operator 
Calculates the Hadamard product of two matricies. 
hbar 
Special Character 
Planck’s contant symbol (ℏ) 
hdock 
Application 
Show/hide the Home dock. 
help 
Application 
Help 
hessenberg 
Function 
Performs upper Hessenberg decomposition. 
histogram 
Function 
Calculates the histogram of scalar values in the supplied list. 
HO 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘O’ with hungarumlaut (Ő) 
Ho 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘o’ with hungarumlaut (ő) 
HU 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘U’ with hungarumlaut (Ű) 
Hu 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘u’ with hungarumlaut (ű) 
ibkp 
Debugging 
Toggles an instruction breakpoint on/off. 
idbool 
Function 
Generates a boolean identity matrix. 
idcomp 
Function 
Generates a complex identity matrix. 
idft 
Function 
Calculates the inverse DFT in one or two dimensions. 
idint 
Function 
Generates an integer identity matrix. 
idreal 
Function 
Generates a real identity matrix. 
if 
Control Flow 
If conditional operator. 
IJ 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘ij’ digraph (Ĳ) 
ij 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘ij’ digraph (ĳ) 
imgdock 
Application 
Show/hide the Image Format dock. 
imgfmt 
Formatting 
Adjusts image size and orientation 
im 
Function 
Imaginary portion of a value. Also supports matrices. 
includegraphics 
Formatting 
Insert an image from a file. 
infty 
Special Value 
Infinity, ∞ 
in 
Operator 
Element Of operator. Sets a variable type or determines if an element is contained in a set. 
inorm 
Function 
Calculates the infinitynorm of a matrix. 
insdock 
Application 
Show/hide the Insert dock. 
inspect 
Debugging 
Inspect variable. 
insplt 
Formatting 
Insert a plot or chart. 
intersection 
Operator 
Set binary intersection operator 
Iota 
Greek Character 
Greek uppercase iota (Ι) 
iota 
Greek Character 
Greek lowercase iota (ι) 
iset 
Special Value 
Integer type 
ishermitian 
Function 
Returns true if a matrix is Hermitian 
isnan 
Function 
Determines if a value is NaN. 
isnormal 
Function 
Returns true if a matrix is normal 
isshermitian 
Function 
Returns true if a matrix is skew Hermitian. 
isssymmetric 
Function 
Returns true if a matrix is skew symmetric. 
issymmetric 
Function 
Returns true if a matrix is symmetric. 
it 
Formatting 
Italicize text 
kA 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘A’ with ogonek (Ą) 
ka 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘a’ with ogonek (ą) 
Kappa 
Greek Character 
Greek uppercase kappa (Κ) 
kappa 
Greek Character 
Greek lowercase kappa (κ) 
kE 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘E’ with ogonek (Ę) 
ke 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘e’ with ogonek (ę) 
kI 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘I’ with ogonek (Į) 
ki 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘i’ with ogonek (į) 
kill 
Debugging 
Stop your program. 
kronecker 
Operator 
Calculates the Kronecker product of two matricies. 
kU 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘U’ with ogonek (Ų) 
ku 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘u’ with ogonek (ų) 
kurtosis 
Function 
Calculates the kurtosis of scalar values in the supplied list. 
L 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘L’ with stroke (Ł) 
Lambda 
Greek Character 
Greek uppercase lambda (Λ) 
lambda 
Greek Character 
Greek lowercase lambda (λ) 
lambertw 
Function 
Lambert W function 
land 
Operator 
Logical AND operator. 
lbicond 
Operator 
Logical biconditional operator. 
lbrace 
Operator 
Braces grouping operator. 
lceil 
Operator 
Ceiling, next higher integer value 
lcond 
Operator 
Logical conditional operator. 
ldock 
Application 
Show/hide the List dock 
leastsq 
Function 
Determines least squares solutions to \(\mathbf{A}\mathbf{x} = \mathbf{y}\) when A or y is over or under determined. 
Leftarrow 
Special Character 
Left arrow (⇐) 
leftarrow 
Special Character 
Left arrow (←) 
Leftrightarrow 
Special Character 
Left, right arrow (⇔) 
leftrightarrow 
Special Character 
Left, right arrow (↔) 
leq 
Operator 
Less than or equal to relational operator. 
lfloor 
Operator 
Floor, next lower integer value 
lfmt 
Formatting 
Enable and modify list formatting of a paragraph. 
lit 
Special Value 
Insert a literal 
l 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘l’ with stroke (ł) 
lnfactorial 
Function 
Natural log of factorial function 
lngamma 
Function 
Natural log of gamma function 
ln 
Function 
Natural log function 
loadaudio 
Function 
Loads audio into a tuple of row matrices. 
loadbooleanmatrix 
Function 
Loads a boolean matrix from a CSV or binary file. 
loadcomplexmatrix 
Function 
Loads a complex matrix from a CSV or binary file. 
loadimage 
Function 
Loads an image into a tuple containing one matrix per channel. 
loadintegermatrix 
Function 
Loads an integer matrix from a CSV or binary file. 
loadrealmatrix 
Function 
Loads a real matrix from a CSV or binary file. 
log 
Function 
Log base b function 
lognormalc 
Function 
Calculates the lognormal cumulative distribution function. 
lognormalp 
Function 
Calculates the lognormal probability density function. 
lognormalq 
Function 
Calculates the lognormal quantile function. 
lognormalv 
Function 
Returns one or more random numbers in a lognormal distribution. 
lor 
Operator 
Logical OR operator. 
lowergammainv 
Function 
Inverse lower gamma 
lowergamma 
Function 
Lower incomplete gamma function 
lq 
Function 
Performs LQ decomposition 
lt 
Operator 
Less than relational operator. 
lxor 
Operator 
Logical exclusive OR operator. 
mathbb{B} 
Special Value 
Boolean type 
mathbb{C} 
Special Value 
Complex type 
mathbb{R} 
Special Value 
Real type 
mathbb{Z} 
Special Value 
Integer type 
matic 
Formatting 
Insert one or more columns into a matrix. 
matir 
Formatting 
Insert one or more rows into a matrix. 
matrc 
Formatting 
Remove a single column from from a matrix. 
matrix 
Formatting 
Insert a new matrix 
matrr 
Formatting 
Remove a single row from from a matrix. 
max 
Function 
Calculates the maximum of scalar values in the supplied list. 
mcomblr 
Operator 
Combines two matrices into a single matrix. Matrices are stacked lefttoright. 
mcombtb 
Operator 
Combines two matrices into a single matrix. Matrices are stacked toptobottom. 
median 
Function 
Calculates the median of scalar values in the supplied list. 
mho 
Special Character 
mho/admittance symbol (℧) 
min 
Function 
Calculates the minimum of scalar values in the supplied list. 
minus 
Operator 
Unary minus operator. Multiplies a value by 1. 
mode 
Function 
Calculates the mode of scalar values in the supplied list. 
Mu 
Greek Character 
Greek uppercase mu (Μ) 
mu 
Greek Character 
Greek lowercase mu (μ) 
narydju 
Operator 
Nary disjoint union operator. 
naryunion 
Operator 
Nary union operator. 
ncols 
Function 
Determine the number of columns in a matrix. 
neg 
Operator 
Unary not operator. 
ne 
Operator 
Not equal to relational operator. 
neq 
Operator 
Not equal to relational operator. 
NG 
Special Character 
Uppercase eng (Ŋ) 
ng 
Special Character 
Lowercase eng (ŋ) 
ni 
Operator 
Set contains as member operator. 
nint 
Operator 
Nearest integer, whole value closet to a given value 
normalc 
Function 
Calculates the normal cumulative distribution function. 
normalp 
Function 
Calculates the normal probability density function. 
normalq 
Function 
Calculates the normal quantile function. 
normalv 
Function 
Returns one or more random numbers in a normal distribution. 
notin 
Operator 
Not element of set operator. 
notni 
Operator 
Set contains as member operator. 
nroot 
Operator 
N:super:th root operator 
nrows 
Function 
Determine the number of rows in a matrix. 
nsubseteq 
Operator 
Not subset operator. 
nsubset 
Operator 
Not proper subset operator. 
nsupseteq 
Operator 
Not superset operator. 
nsupset 
Operator 
Not superset operator. 
Nu 
Greek Character 
Greek uppercase nu (Ν) 
nu 
Greek Character 
Greek lowercase nu (ν) 
O 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘O’ with slash (Ø) 
odock 
Application 
Show/hide the Operator Format dock. 
OE 
Special Character 
Uppercase ligature ‘oe’ (Œ) 
oe 
Special Character 
Lowercase ligature ‘oe’ (œ) 
ofmt 
Formatting 
Modify surrounding parenthesis or operator symbol 
Omega 
Greek Character 
Greek uppercase omega (Ω) 
omega 
Greek Character 
Greek lowercase omega (ω) 
Omicron 
Greek Character 
Greek uppercase omicron (Ο) 
omicron 
Greek Character 
Greek lowercase omicron (ο) 
onorm 
Function 
Calculates the onenorm of a matrix. 
o 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘o’ with slash (ø) 
otimes 
Operator 
Calculates the Kronecker product of two matricies. 
overbar 
Operator 
Overbar not operator. 
overline 
Formatting 
Overline text 
P 
Special Character 
Pilcrow (¶) 
pagebreak 
Formatting 
Insert a page break. 
pause 
Debugging 
Pause your program. 
pdock 
Application 
Show/hide the Page dock. 
pfmt 
Formatting 
Change the page format. 
pgamma 
Function 
Normalized lower gamma function 
Phi 
Greek Character 
Greek uppercase phi (Φ) 
phi 
Greek Character 
Greek lowercase phi (φ) 
Pi 
Greek Character 
Greek uppercase pi (Π) 
piconst 
Special Value 
Special value pi, 3.14… 
pi 
Greek Character 
Greek lowercase pi (π) 
playaudio 
Function 
Sends audio output to the computer’s audio output device. 
pltfmt 
Formatting 
Formats a plot or chart. 
plu 
Function 
Performs PLU decomposition. 
plus 
Operator 
Unary plus operator. Multiplies a value by +1. 
pnorm 
Function 
Calculates the pnorm of a matrix. 
poissonc 
Function 
Calculates the Poisson cumulative distribution function. 
poissonp 
Function 
Calculates the Poisson probability mass function. 
poissonv 
Function 
Returns one or more random numbers in an Poisson distribution. 
pounds 
Special Character 
Pounds (£) 
pow 
Operator 
Power operator 
preferences 
Application 
Configure the application 
Psi 
Greek Character 
Greek uppercase psi (Ψ) 
psi 
Greek Character 
Greek lowercase psi (ψ) 
pst 
Application 
Paste 
qgamma 
Function 
Normalized upper gamma function 
qr 
Function 
Performs QR decomposition 
quit 
Application 
Quit 
range1 
Operator 
Insert a range with an implied increment of 1 
range 
Operator 
Insert a range with an explicit increment 
rank 
Function 
Returns the matrix rank to within a given tolerance 
rayleighc 
Function 
Calculates the Rayleigh cumulative distribution function 
rayleighp 
Function 
Calculates the Rayleigh distribution probability density function 
rayleighq 
Function 
Calculates the Rayleigh distribution quantile function 
rayleighv 
Function 
Returns one or more random numbers in a Rayleigh distribution 
rbrace 
Operator 
Braces grouping operator. 
rceil 
Operator 
Ceiling, next higher integer value 
redo 
Application 
Redo 
re 
Function 
Real portion of a value. Also supports matrices. 
rfloor 
Operator 
Floor, next lower integer value 
Rho 
Greek Character 
Greek uppercase rho (Ρ) 
rho 
Greek Character 
Greek lowercase rho (ρ) 
Rightarrow 
Special Character 
Right arrow (⇒) 
rightarrow 
Special Character 
Right arrow (→) 
rint32 
Function 
Returns a 32bit unsigned random integer 
rint64 
Function 
Returns a 64bit signed random integer 
rset 
Special Value 
Real type 
run 
Debugging 
Run your program 
runtohere 
Debugging 
Run to the cursor 
rU 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘U’ with ring (Ů) 
ru 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘u’ with ring (ů) 
rw 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘w’ with ring (ẘ) 
ry 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘y’ with ring (ẙ) 
S 
Special Character 
Section (§) 
saveaudio 
Function 
Saves audio samples to a file. 
savebooleanmatrix 
Function 
Saves a boolean matrix to a CSV or binary file. 
savecomplexmatrix 
Function 
Saves a complex matrix to a CSV or binary file. 
saveimage 
Function 
Save an image to a file. 
saveintegermatrix 
Function 
Saves an integer matrix to a CSV or binary file. 
saverealmatrix 
Function 
Saves a real matrix to a CSV or binary file. 
schur 
Function 
Performs Schur decomposition 
sech 
Function 
Hyperbolic secant function 
sec 
Function 
Secant function 
selall 
Application 
Select All 
setminus 
Operator 
Set difference operator. 
set 
Operator 
Insert a set. 
Sigma 
Greek Character 
Greek uppercase sigma (Σ) 
sigma 
Greek Character 
Greek lowercase sigma (σ) 
sinh 
Function 
Hyperbolic sine function 
sin 
Function 
Sine function 
sizeof 
Operator 
Determine the size of a matrix, set, or tuple. 
solve 
Operator 
Solves \(\mathbf{A}\mathbf{x} = \mathbf{y}\) for \(x\) given matrix \(A\) and \(y\) 
sortr 
Operator 
Sorts any iterable type in reverse order. 
sort 
Operator 
Sorts any iterable type. 
sout 
Formatting 
Strikethrough text 
split 
Function 
Splits a tuple into multiple smaller sections. Also works for strings. 
sqcup 
Operator 
Disjoint union operator. 
sqrt 
Operator 
Square root operator 
SS 
Special Character 
Uppercase eszett (ẞ) 
sskew 
Function 
Calculates the sample skew of scalar values in the supplied list. 
ss 
Special Character 
Lowercase eszett (ß) 
sstddev 
Function 
Calculates the sample standard deviation of scalar values in the supplied list. 
stddev 
Function 
Calculates the standard deviation of scalar values in the supplied list. 
step 
Debugging 
Perform the next operation, then stop. 
sterling1fn 
Function 
Unsigned sterling number of the first kind 
sterling2fn 
Function 
Sterling number of the second kind 
subseteq 
Operator 
Subset operator. 
subset 
Operator 
Proper subset operator. 
sub 
Formatting 
subscript text 
sum 
Function 
Calculates the sum of scalar values in the supplied list. 
super 
Formatting 
Superscript text 
supseteq 
Operator 
Superset operator. 
supset 
Operator 
Proper superset operator. 
svd 
Function 
Performs singular value decomposition 
symdiff 
Operator 
Set symmetric difference operator. 
systemtime 
Function 
Determines the system time in mSec. 
tabclose 
Application 
Closes the current tab 
tabnew 
Application 
Creates a new tab 
tanh 
Function 
Hyperbolic tangent function 
tan 
Function 
Tangent function 
Tau 
Greek Character 
Greek uppercase tau (Τ) 
tau 
Greek Character 
Greek lowercase tau (τ) 
tcdock 
Application 
Show/hide the Table cell dock 
tdock 
Application 
Show/hide the Table dock 
textbf 
Formatting 
Boldface text 
textexclaimdown 
Special Character 
Inverted exclamation point (¡) 
textit 
Formatting 
Italicize text 
textnormal 
Formatting 
Restore normal baseline 
textquestiondown 
Special Character 
Inverted question mark (¿) 
textsubscript 
Formatting 
Subscript text 
textsuperscript 
Formatting 
Superscript text 
textyen 
Special Character 
Yen (¥) 
tfmt 
Formatting 
Change table style and settings. 
TH 
Special Character 
Futhark uppercase thorn (Þ) 
therefore 
Operator 
Therefore operator specifies the value of a compound statement. 
Theta 
Greek Character 
Greek uppercase theta (Θ) 
theta 
Greek Character 
Greek lowercase theta (θ) 
th 
Special Character 
Futhark lowercase thorn (þ) 
times 
Operator 
Cartesian product operator. 
tostring 
Function 
Converts a scalar to a string representation 
transpose 
Operator 
Performs a matrix transpose. 
triangle 
Operator 
Set symmetric difference operator. 
trng32 
Function 
Returns a 32bit unsigned true random integer 
trng64 
Function 
Returns a 64bit signed true random integer 
trngu 
Function 
Returns a true random uniform value over the range [0, 1] 
true 
Special Value 
Special value ‘true’ 
tuple 
Operator 
Insert a tuple 
uA 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘A’ with breve (Ă) 
ua 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘a’ with breve (ă) 
ucholesky 
Function 
Performs upper Cholesky decomposition (creating \(\mathbf{U} \times \mathbf{U} ^ H\)) 
uE 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘E’ with breve (Ĕ) 
ue 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘e’ with breve (ĕ) 
uG 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘G’ with breve (Ğ) 
ug 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘g’ with breve (ğ) 
uI 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘I’ with breve (Ĭ) 
ui 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘i’ with breve (ĭ) 
uline 
Formatting 
Underline text 
ul 
Formatting 
Underline text 
underline 
Formatting 
Underline text 
undo 
Application 
Undo 
uniformex 
Function 
Returns one or more uniform random numbers over the range (0, 1) 
uniforminc 
Function 
Returns one or more uniform random numbers over the range [0, 1] 
union 
Operator 
Set binary union operator. 
uO 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘O’ with breve (Ŏ) 
uo 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘o’ with breve (ŏ) 
Uparrow 
Special Character 
Upward arrow (⇑) 
uparrow 
Special Character 
Upward arrow (↑) 
Updownarrow 
Special Character 
Up, down arrow (⇕) 
updownarrow 
Special Character 
Up, down arrow (↕) 
uppergamma 
Function 
Upper incomplete gamma function 
Upsilon 
Greek Character 
Greek uppercase upsilon (Υ) 
upsilon 
Greek Character 
Greek lowercase upsilon (υ) 
uU 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘U’ with breve (Ŭ) 
uu 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘u’ with breve (ŭ) 
variance 
Function 
Calculates the variance of scalar values in the supplied list. 
varkappa 
Greek Character 
Greek lowercase kappa (ϰ) 
varnothing 
Special Value 
Special value null set 
varphi 
Greek Character 
Greek lowercase phi (φ) 
varpi 
Greek Character 
Greek lowercase pi (ϖ) 
varsigma 
Greek Character 
Greek lowercase sigma (ς) 
vartheta 
Greek Character 
Greek lowercase theta (ϑ) 
var 
Operator 
Insert a variable 
vC 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘C’ with caron (Č) 
vc 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘c’ with caron (č) 
vD 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘D’ with caron (Ď) 
veebar 
Operator 
Logical exclusive OR operator. 
vE 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘E’ with caron (Ě) 
ve 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘e’ with caron (ě) 
vfdock 
Application 
Show/hide the Value Field Format dock. 
vffmt 
Formatting 
Adjusts the presentation of numerical values. 
vf 
Formatting 
Insert a field that displays the value of a variable. 
vG 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘G’ with caron (Ǧ) 
vg 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘g’ with caron (ǧ) 
vH 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘H’ with caron (Ȟ) 
vh 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘h’ with caron (ȟ) 
vK 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘K’ with caron (Ǩ) 
vk 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘k’ with caron (ǩ) 
vO 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘O’ with caron (Ǒ) 
vo 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘o’ with caron (ǒ) 
vR 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘R’ with caron (Ř) 
vr 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘r’ with caron (ř) 
vS 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘S’ with caron (Š) 
vs 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘s’ with caron (š) 
vT 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘T’ with caron (Ť) 
vU 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘U’ with caron (Ǔ) 
vu 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘u’ with caron (ǔ) 
vZ 
Special Character 
Uppercase ‘Z’ with caron (Ž) 
vz 
Special Character 
Lowercase ‘z’ with caron (ž) 
wclose 
Application 
Closes this window 
weibullc 
Function 
Calculates the Weibull cumulative distribution function. 
weibullp 
Function 
Calculates the Weibull probability density function. 
weibullq 
Function 
Calculates the Weibull quantile function 
weibullv 
Function 
Returns one or more random numbers in a Weibull distribution. 
while 
Control Flow 
Iterate while a condition is met. 
wnew 
Application 
Creates a new window 
xcolor 
Formatting 
Font color 
Xi 
Greek Character 
Greek uppercase xi (Ξ) 
xi 
Greek Character 
Greek lowercase xi (ξ) 
zbool 
Function 
Generates a boolean zero matrix (all values false) 
zcomp 
Function 
Generates a complex zero matrix 
Zeta 
Greek Character 
Greek uppercase zeta (Ζ) 
zetafn 
Function 
Reimann Zeta function 
zeta 
Greek Character 
Greek lowercase zeta (ζ) 
zint 
Function 
Generates an integer zero matrix 
zreal 
Function 
Generates a real zero matrix 
Application Commands¶
Table 45 lists all application commands.
Command 
Description 

bdock 
Show/hide the Block dock. 
bmdock 
Show/hide the Basic Math dock 
cdock 
Show/hide the Character dock 
cpy 
Copy 
cut 
Cut 
examples 
Open an example 
exphtml 
Exports your program as a document in HTML format. 
expimg 
Exports an element of your program as an image. 
explatex 
Exports your program as a document in LaTeX format. 
explib 
Exports your program as a dynamic library. 
expobj 
Exports your program as a binary object. 
exppdf 
Exports your program as a document in PDF format. 
fclose 
Closes the current program file. 
feedback 
Tell us how to make you more successful. 
fnew 
Creates a new program file 
fopen 
Opens an existing program file. 
fsaveas 
Saves the current program under a new name. 
fsave 
Saves the current program. 
getstarted 
Start here ! 
hdock 
Show/hide the Home dock. 
help 
Help 
imgdock 
Show/hide the Image Format dock. 
insdock 
Show/hide the Insert dock. 
ldock 
Show/hide the List dock 
odock 
Show/hide the Operator Format dock. 
pdock 
Show/hide the Page dock. 
preferences 
Configure the application 
pst 
Paste 
quit 
Quit 
redo 
Redo 
selall 
Select All 
tabclose 
Closes the current tab 
tabnew 
Creates a new tab 
tcdock 
Show/hide the Table cell dock 
tdock 
Show/hide the Table dock 
undo 
Undo 
vfdock 
Show/hide the Value Field Format dock. 
wclose 
Closes this window 
wnew 
Creates a new window 
Control Flow Commands¶
Table 46 lists all control flow commands.
Command 
Description 

elif 
Elseif conditional operator. 
else 
Else conditional operator. 
if 
If conditional operator. 
while 
Iterate while a condition is met. 
Debugging Commands¶
Table 47 lists all debugging commands.
Command 
Description 

clrbkp 
Clears all breakpoints 
ibkp 
Toggles an instruction breakpoint on/off. 
inspect 
Inspect variable. 
kill 
Stop your program. 
pause 
Pause your program. 
run 
Run your program 
runtohere 
Run to the cursor 
step 
Perform the next operation, then stop. 
Formatting Commands¶
Table 48 lists all formatting commands.
Command 
Description 

alignc 
Center text and other elements. 
alignj 
Justify text. 
alignl 
Left align text and other elements. 
alignr 
Right align text and other elements. 
bcfmt 
Modify a brace conditional operator 
bf 
Boldface text 
bfmt 
Change the block/paragraph format. 
bgcolor 
Highlighting/Font background color 
cfmt 
Change the character format. 
color 
Font color 
imgfmt 
Adjusts image size and orientation 
includegraphics 
Insert an image from a file. 
insplt 
Insert a plot or chart. 
it 
Italicize text 
lfmt 
Enable and modify list formatting of a paragraph. 
matic 
Insert one or more columns into a matrix. 
matir 
Insert one or more rows into a matrix. 
matrc 
Remove a single column from from a matrix. 
matrix 
Insert a new matrix 
matrr 
Remove a single row from from a matrix. 
ofmt 
Modify surrounding parenthesis or operator symbol 
overline 
Overline text 
pagebreak 
Insert a page break. 
pfmt 
Change the page format. 
pltfmt 
Formats a plot or chart. 
sout 
Strikethrough text 
sub 
subscript text 
super 
Superscript text 
textbf 
Boldface text 
textit 
Italicize text 
textnormal 
Restore normal baseline 
textsubscript 
Subscript text 
textsuperscript 
Superscript text 
tfmt 
Change table style and settings. 
uline 
Underline text 
ul 
Underline text 
underline 
Underline text 
vffmt 
Adjusts the presentation of numerical values. 
vf 
Insert a field that displays the value of a variable. 
xcolor 
Font color 
Function Commands¶
Table 49 lists all function commands.
Command 
Description 

abs 
Absolute value, magnitude, determinant, and set cardinality 
adjoint 
Performs a conjugate transpose of a matrix. 
alphabet 
Determine the unique members of a set, tuple, or matrix. 
arccos 
Arccosine function 
arccot 
Arccotangent function 
arccsc 
Arccosecant function 
arcosh 
Area hyperbolic cosine function 
arcoth 
Area hyperbolic cotangent function 
arcsch 
Area hyperbolic cosecant function 
arcsec 
Arcsecant function 
arcsin 
Arcsine function 
arctan 
Arctangent function 
arsech 
Area hyperbolic secant function 
arsinh 
Area hyperbolic sine function 
artanh 
Area hyperbolic tangent function 
average 
Calculates the average of scalar values in the supplied list. 
betafn 
Beta function 
binomialc 
Calculates the binomial cumulative distribution function. 
binomialp 
Calculates the binomial probability mass function 
binomialv 
Returns one or more random numbers in an binomial distribution. 
cauchyc 
Calculates the Cauchy cumulative distribution function 
cauchyp 
Calculates the Cauchy probability density function. 
cauchyq 
Calculates the Cauchy quantile function. 
cauchyv 
Returns one or more random numbers in a Cauchy distribution. 
chisquaredc 
Calculates the chisquared cumulative distribution function. 
chisquaredp 
Calculates the chisquared distribution probability density function. 
chisquaredq 
Calculates the chisquared distribution quantile function. 
chisquaredv 
Returns one or more random numbers in a chisquared distribution. 
cholesky 
Performs Cholesky decomposition (creating \(\mathbf{L} \times \mathbf{L} ^ H\)) 
condnum 
Calculates the approximate condition number of a matrix. 
conjtran 
Performs a conjugate transpose of a matrix. 
cos 
Cosine function 
cosh 
Hyperbolic cosine function 
cot 
Cotangent function 
coth 
Hyperbolic cotangent function 
count 
Counts scalar values in the supplied list. 
csc 
Cosecant function 
csch 
Hyperbolic cosecant function 
dct2 
Calculates the DCT, type 2, in one or two dimensions 
dct3 
Calculates the DCT, type 3, in one or two dimensions 
dft 
Calculates the DFT in one or two dimensions 
diagent 
Returns a column matrix holding the diagnonal entries. 
diagonal 
Returns a diagonal matrix using the supplied values. 
eigenvectors 
Calculates eigenvectors, eigenvalues, and Schur decomposition. 
enorm 
Calculates the Euclidean norm of a matrix. 
equilibrate 
Equilibrates a matrix. 
erfc 
Complementary error function 
erf 
Error function 
erfinv 
Inverse error function 
exponentialc 
Calculates the exponential cumulative distribution function. 
exponentialp 
Calculates the exponential probability density function. 
exponentialq 
Calculates the exponential quantile function. 
exponentialv 
Returns one or more random numbers in an exponential distribution. 
fileclose 
Closes an open file. 
filedelete 
Deletes a file 
fileexists 
Determines if a file exists. 
fileopenread 
Opens a file for reading. 
fileopenwrite 
Opens a file for reading and writing, content will be preserved. 
fileopenwritetruncate 
Opens a file for reading and writing, destroying existing content. 
filereadbyte 
Reads a single byte from a file. 
filereadinteger 
Reads an integer from a file. 
filereadreal 
Reads a real value from a file. 
filereadstring 
Reads a string of text from a file. 
fileseek 
Seeks to a specific location in a file. 
filewritebyte 
Writes a single byte to a file. 
filewriteinteger 
Writes an integer value to a file. 
filewritereal 
Writes a real value to a file. 
filewritestring 
Writes a string of text to a file. 
find 
Finds a subtuple within a tuple. Also works for strings. 
fliplr 
Flip a matrix from left to right, reversing column order. 
flipud 
Flip a matrix from top to bottom, reversing row order. 
fn 
Define or use a function. 
gammac 
Calculates the gamma cumulative distribution function. 
gammafn 
Gamma function 
gammap 
Calculates the gamma probability density function. 
gammaq 
Calculates the gamma quantile function. 
gammav 
Returns one or more random numbers in a gamma distribution. 
geometricc 
Calculates the geometric cumulative distribution function. 
geometricp 
Calculates the geometric probability mass function. 
geometricv 
Returns one or more random numbers in an geometric distribution. 
hessenberg 
Performs upper Hessenberg decomposition. 
histogram 
Calculates the histogram of scalar values in the supplied list. 
idbool 
Generates a boolean identity matrix. 
idcomp 
Generates a complex identity matrix. 
idft 
Calculates the inverse DFT in one or two dimensions. 
idint 
Generates an integer identity matrix. 
idreal 
Generates a real identity matrix. 
im 
Imaginary portion of a value. Also supports matrices. 
inorm 
Calculates the infinitynorm of a matrix. 
ishermitian 
Returns true if a matrix is Hermitian 
isnan 
Determines if a value is NaN. 
isnormal 
Returns true if a matrix is normal 
isshermitian 
Returns true if a matrix is skew Hermitian. 
isssymmetric 
Returns true if a matrix is skew symmetric. 
issymmetric 
Returns true if a matrix is symmetric. 
kurtosis 
Calculates the kurtosis of scalar values in the supplied list. 
lambertw 
Lambert W function 
leastsq 
Determines least squares solutions to \(\mathbf{A}\mathbf{x} = \mathbf{y}\) when A or y is over or under determined. 
lnfactorial 
Natural log of factorial function 
lngamma 
Natural log of gamma function 
ln 
Natural log function 
loadaudio 
Loads audio into a tuple of row matrices. 
loadbooleanmatrix 
Loads a boolean matrix from a CSV or binary file. 
loadcomplexmatrix 
Loads a complex matrix from a CSV or binary file. 
loadimage 
Loads an image into a tuple containing one matrix per channel. 
loadintegermatrix 
Loads an integer matrix from a CSV or binary file. 
loadrealmatrix 
Loads a real matrix from a CSV or binary file. 
log 
Log base b function 
lognormalc 
Calculates the lognormal cumulative distribution function. 
lognormalp 
Calculates the lognormal probability density function. 
lognormalq 
Calculates the lognormal quantile function. 
lognormalv 
Returns one or more random numbers in a lognormal distribution. 
lowergammainv 
Inverse lower gamma 
lowergamma 
Lower incomplete gamma function 
lq 
Performs LQ decomposition 
max 
Calculates the maximum of scalar values in the supplied list. 
median 
Calculates the median of scalar values in the supplied list. 
min 
Calculates the minimum of scalar values in the supplied list. 
mode 
Calculates the mode of scalar values in the supplied list. 
ncols 
Determine the number of columns in a matrix. 
normalc 
Calculates the normal cumulative distribution function. 
normalp 
Calculates the normal probability density function. 
normalq 
Calculates the normal quantile function. 
normalv 
Returns one or more random numbers in a normal distribution. 
nrows 
Determine the number of rows in a matrix. 
onorm 
Calculates the onenorm of a matrix. 
pgamma 
Normalized lower gamma function 
playaudio 
Sends audio output to the computer’s audio output device. 
plu 
Performs PLU decomposition. 
pnorm 
Calculates the pnorm of a matrix. 
poissonc 
Calculates the Poisson cumulative distribution function. 
poissonp 
Calculates the Poisson probability mass function. 
poissonv 
Returns one or more random numbers in an Poisson distribution. 
qgamma 
Normalized upper gamma function 
qr 
Performs QR decomposition 
rank 
Returns the matrix rank to within a given tolerance 
rayleighc 
Calculates the Rayleigh cumulative distribution function 
rayleighp 
Calculates the Rayleigh distribution probability density function 
rayleighq 
Calculates the Rayleigh distribution quantile function 
rayleighv 
Returns one or more random numbers in a Rayleigh distribution 
re 
Real portion of a value. Also supports matrices. 
rint32 
Returns a 32bit unsigned random integer 
rint64 
Returns a 64bit signed random integer 
saveaudio 
Saves audio samples to a file. 
savebooleanmatrix 
Saves a boolean matrix to a CSV or binary file. 
savecomplexmatrix 
Saves a complex matrix to a CSV or binary file. 
saveimage 
Save an image to a file. 
saveintegermatrix 
Saves an integer matrix to a CSV or binary file. 
saverealmatrix 
Saves a real matrix to a CSV or binary file. 
schur 
Performs Schur decomposition 
sech 
Hyperbolic secant function 
sec 
Secant function 
sinh 
Hyperbolic sine function 
sin 
Sine function 
split 
Splits a tuple into multiple smaller sections. Also works for strings. 
sskew 
Calculates the sample skew of scalar values in the supplied list. 
sstddev 
Calculates the sample standard deviation of scalar values in the supplied list. 
stddev 
Calculates the standard deviation of scalar values in the supplied list. 
sterling1fn 
Unsigned sterling number of the first kind 
sterling2fn 
Sterling number of the second kind 
sum 
Calculates the sum of scalar values in the supplied list. 
svd 
Performs singular value decomposition 
systemtime 
Determines the system time in mSec. 
tanh 
Hyperbolic tangent function 
tan 
Tangent function 
tostring 
Converts a scalar to a string representation 
trng32 
Returns a 32bit unsigned true random integer 
trng64 
Returns a 64bit signed true random integer 
trngu 
Returns a true random uniform value over the range [0, 1] 
ucholesky 
Performs upper Cholesky decomposition (creating \(\mathbf{U} \times \mathbf{U} ^ H\)) 
uniformex 
Returns one or more uniform random numbers over the range (0, 1) 
uniforminc 
Returns one or more uniform random numbers over the range [0, 1] 
uppergamma 
Upper incomplete gamma function 
variance 
Calculates the variance of scalar values in the supplied list. 
weibullc 
Calculates the Weibull cumulative distribution function. 
weibullp 
Calculates the Weibull probability density function. 
weibullq 
Calculates the Weibull quantile function 
weibullv 
Returns one or more random numbers in a Weibull distribution. 
zbool 
Generates a boolean zero matrix (all values false) 
zcomp 
Generates a complex zero matrix 
zetafn 
Reimann Zeta function 
zint 
Generates an integer zero matrix 
zreal 
Generates a real zero matrix 
Greek Character Commands¶
Table 50 lists all greek character commands.
Command 
Description 

Alpha 
Greek uppercase alpha (Α) 
alpha 
Greek lowercase alpha (α) 
Beta 
Greek uppercase beta (Β) 
beta 
Greek lowercase beta (β) 
Chi 
Greek uppercase chi (Χ) 
chi 
Greek lowercase chi (χ) 
Delta 
Greek uppercase delta (Δ) 
delta 
Greek lowercase delta (δ) 
Digamma 
Greek uppercase digamma (Ϝ) 
Epsilon 
Greek uppercase epsilon (Ε) 
epsilon 
Greek lowercase epsilon (ε) 
Eta 
Greek uppercase eta (Η) 
eta 
Greek lowercase eta (η) 
Gamma 
Greek uppercase gamma (Γ) 
gamma 
Greek lowercase gamma (γ) 
Iota 
Greek uppercase iota (Ι) 
iota 
Greek lowercase iota (ι) 
Kappa 
Greek uppercase kappa (Κ) 
kappa 
Greek lowercase kappa (κ) 
Lambda 
Greek uppercase lambda (Λ) 
lambda 
Greek lowercase lambda (λ) 
Mu 
Greek uppercase mu (Μ) 
mu 
Greek lowercase mu (μ) 
Nu 
Greek uppercase nu (Ν) 
nu 
Greek lowercase nu (ν) 
Omega 
Greek uppercase omega (Ω) 
omega 
Greek lowercase omega (ω) 
Omicron 
Greek uppercase omicron (Ο) 
omicron 
Greek lowercase omicron (ο) 
Phi 
Greek uppercase phi (Φ) 
phi 
Greek lowercase phi (φ) 
Pi 
Greek uppercase pi (Π) 
pi 
Greek lowercase pi (π) 
Psi 
Greek uppercase psi (Ψ) 
psi 
Greek lowercase psi (ψ) 
Rho 
Greek uppercase rho (Ρ) 
rho 
Greek lowercase rho (ρ) 
Sigma 
Greek uppercase sigma (Σ) 
sigma 
Greek lowercase sigma (σ) 
Tau 
Greek uppercase tau (Τ) 
tau 
Greek lowercase tau (τ) 
Theta 
Greek uppercase theta (Θ) 
theta 
Greek lowercase theta (θ) 
Upsilon 
Greek uppercase upsilon (Υ) 
upsilon 
Greek lowercase upsilon (υ) 
varkappa 
Greek lowercase kappa (ϰ) 
varphi 
Greek lowercase phi (φ) 
varpi 
Greek lowercase pi (ϖ) 
varsigma 
Greek lowercase sigma (ς) 
vartheta 
Greek lowercase theta (ϑ) 
Xi 
Greek uppercase xi (Ξ) 
xi 
Greek lowercase xi (ξ) 
Zeta 
Greek uppercase zeta (Ζ) 
zeta 
Greek lowercase zeta (ζ) 
Operator Commands¶
Table 51 lists all operator commands.
Command 
Description 

! 
Factorial operator 
( 
Parenthesis grouping operator. 
* 
Multiplication operator. Multiplies two values 
** 
Power operator 
+ 
Addition operator. 
 
Subtraction operator. Subtracts two values. You can also use this operator to perform set relative complement or set difference operations. 
< 
Less than relational operator. 
= 
Assignment operator and is equal to relational operator. Assign value to a variable, define a function, or compare two values. 
> 
Greater than relational operator. 
[ 
Brackets grouping operator. 
^ 
Power operator 
_ 
Subscripting operator, row & column 
Subscripting operator, single index 

{ 
Braces grouping operator. 
Define a compound statement or block. 

bc 
Calculate a value based on a set of conditions. 
begin{array} 
Insert a new matrix 
bigcap 
Nary disjoint union operator. 
bigcup 
Nary union operator. 
cap 
Set binary intersection operator. 
cases 
Calculate a value based on a set of conditions. 
ceil 
Ceiling, next higher integer value 
circ 
Calculates the Hadamard product of two matricies. 
conj 
Complex conjugate operator. 
cprod 
Cartesian product operator. 
cup 
Set binary union operator. 
div 
Division operator. Divides two values 
dju 
Disjoint union operator. 
fact 
Factorial operator. 
floor 
Floor, next lower integer value 
forall 
Iterate through sets, tuple, and matrix values. 
foreach 
Iterate through sets, tuple, and matrix values. 
frac 
Fraction (division) operator. Divides two values. 
geq 
Greater than or equal to relational operator. 
gt 
Greater than relational operator. 
hadamard 
Calculates the Hadamard product of two matricies. 
in 
Element Of operator. Sets a variable type or determines if an element is contained in a set. 
intersection 
Set binary intersection operator 
kronecker 
Calculates the Kronecker product of two matricies. 
land 
Logical AND operator. 
lbicond 
Logical biconditional operator. 
lbrace 
Braces grouping operator. 
lceil 
Ceiling, next higher integer value 
lcond 
Logical conditional operator. 
leq 
Less than or equal to relational operator. 
lfloor 
Floor, next lower integer value 
lor 
Logical OR operator. 
lt 
Less than relational operator. 
lxor 
Logical exclusive OR operator. 
mcomblr 
Combines two matrices into a single matrix. Matrices are stacked lefttoright. 
mcombtb 
Combines two matrices into a single matrix. Matrices are stacked toptobottom. 
minus 
Unary minus operator. Multiplies a value by 1. 
narydju 
Nary disjoint union operator. 
naryunion 
Nary union operator. 
neg 
Unary not operator. 
ne 
Not equal to relational operator. 
neq 
Not equal to relational operator. 
ni 
Set contains as member operator. 
nint 
Nearest integer, whole value closet to a given value 
notin 
Not element of set operator. 
notni 
Set contains as member operator. 
nroot 
N:super:th root operator 
nsubseteq 
Not subset operator. 
nsubset 
Not proper subset operator. 
nsupseteq 
Not superset operator. 
nsupset 
Not superset operator. 
otimes 
Calculates the Kronecker product of two matricies. 
overbar 
Overbar not operator. 
plus 
Unary plus operator. Multiplies a value by +1. 
pow 
Power operator 
range1 
Insert a range with an implied increment of 1 
range 
Insert a range with an explicit increment 
rbrace 
Braces grouping operator. 
rceil 
Ceiling, next higher integer value 
rfloor 
Floor, next lower integer value 
setminus 
Set difference operator. 
set 
Insert a set. 
sizeof 
Determine the size of a matrix, set, or tuple. 
solve 
Solves \(\mathbf{A}\mathbf{x} = \mathbf{y}\) for \(x\) given matrix \(A\) and \(y\) 
sortr 
Sorts any iterable type in reverse order. 
sort 
Sorts any iterable type. 
sqcup 
Disjoint union operator. 
sqrt 
Square root operator 
subseteq 
Subset operator. 
subset 
Proper subset operator. 
supseteq 
Superset operator. 
supset 
Proper superset operator. 
symdiff 
Set symmetric difference operator. 
therefore 
Therefore operator specifies the value of a compound statement. 
times 
Cartesian product operator. 
transpose 
Performs a matrix transpose. 
triangle 
Set symmetric difference operator. 
tuple 
Insert a tuple 
union 
Set binary union operator. 
var 
Insert a variable 
veebar 
Logical exclusive OR operator. 
Special Character Commands¶
Table 52 lists all special character commands.
Command 
Description 

“A 
Uppercase ‘A’ with umlaut (Ä) 
“a 
Lowercase “a” with umlaut (ä) 
“E 
Uppercase ‘E’ with umlaut (Ë) 
“e 
Lowercase “e” with umlaut (ë) 
“H 
Uppercase ‘H’ with umlaut (Ḧ) 
“h 
Lowercase “h” with umlaut (ḧ) 
“I 
Uppercase ‘I’ with umlaut (Ï) 
“i 
Lowercase “i” with umlaut (ï) 
“O 
Uppercase ‘O’ with umlaut (Ö) 
“o 
Lowercase “o” with umlaut (ӧ) 
“t 
Lowercase “t” with umlaut (ẗ) 
“U 
Uppercase ‘U’ with umlaut (Ü) 
“u 
Lowercase “u” with umlaut (ü) 
“W 
Uppercase “W” with umlaut (Ẅ) 
“w 
Lowercase “w” with umlaut (ẅ) 
“X 
Uppercase “X” with umlaut (Ẍ) 
“x 
Lowercase “x” with umlaut (ẍ) 
“y 
Lowercase “y” with umlaut (ӱ) 
‘A 
Uppercase “A” with acute (Á) 
‘a 
Lowercase “a” with acute (á) 
‘C 
Uppercase “C” with acute (Ć) 
‘c 
Lowercase “c” with acute (ć) 
‘E 
Uppercase “E” with acute (É) 
‘e 
Lowercase “e” with acute (é) 
‘G 
Uppercase “G” with acute (Ǵ) 
‘g 
Lowercase “g” with acute (ǵ) 
‘I 
Uppercase “I” with acute (Í) 
‘i 
Lowercase “i” with acute (í) 
‘k 
Lowercase “k” with acute (ḱ) 
‘M 
Uppercase “M” with acute (Ḿ) 
‘m 
Lowercase “m” with acute (ḿ) 
‘O 
Uppercase “O” with acute (Ó) 
‘o 
Lowercase “o” with acute (ó) 
‘P 
Uppercase “P” with acute (Ṕ) 
‘p 
Lowercase “p” with acute (ṕ) 
‘U 
Uppercase “U” with acute (Ú) 
‘u 
Lowercase “u” with acute (ú) 
‘W 
Uppercase “W” with acute (Ẃ) 
‘w 
Lowercase “w” with acute (ẃ) 
‘Y 
Uppercase “Y” with acute (Ý) 
‘y 
Lowercase “y” with acute (ý) 
.A 
Uppercase “A” with dot above (Ȧ) 
.a 
Lowercase “a” with dot above (ȧ) 
.B 
Uppercase “B” with dot above (Ḃ) 
.b 
Lowercase “b” with dot above (ḃ) 
.C 
Uppercase “C” with dot above (Ċ) 
.c 
Lowercase “c” with dot above (ċ) 
.D 
Uppercase “D” with dot above (Ḋ) 
.d 
Lowercase “d” with dot above (ḋ) 
.E 
Uppercase “E” with dot above (Ė) 
.e 
Lowercase “e” with dot above (ė) 
.F 
Uppercase “F” with dot above (Ḟ) 
.f 
Lowercase “f” with dot above (ḟ) 
.G 
Uppercase “G” with dot above (Ġ) 
.g 
Lowercase “g” with dot above (ġ) 
.H 
Uppercase “H” with dot above (Ḣ) 
.h 
Lowercase “h” with dot above (ḣ) 
.I 
Uppercase “I” with dot above (İ) 
.M 
Uppercase “M” with dot above (Ṁ) 
.m 
Lowercase “m” with dot above (ṁ) 
.N 
Uppercase “N” with dot above (Ṅ) 
.n 
Lowercase “n” with dot above (ṅ) 
.O 
Uppercase “O” with dot above (Ȯ) 
.o 
Lowercase “o” with dot above (ȯ) 
.P 
Uppercase “P” with dot above (Ṗ) 
.p 
Lowercase “p” with dot above (ṗ) 
.R 
Uppercase “R” with dot above (Ṙ) 
.r 
Lowercase “r” with dot above (ṙ) 
.S 
Uppercase “S” with dot above (Ṡ) 
.s 
Lowercase “s” with dot above (ṡ) 
.T 
Uppercase “T” with dot above (Ṫ) 
.t 
Lowercase “t” with dot above (ṫ) 
.W 
Uppercase “W” with dot above (Ẇ) 
.w 
Lowercase “w” with dot above (ẇ) 
.X 
Uppercase “X” with dot above (Ẋ) 
.x 
Lowercase “x” with dot above (ẋ) 
.Y 
Uppercase “Y” with dot above (Ẏ) 
.y 
Lowercase “y” with dot above (ẏ) 
.Z 
Uppercase “Z” with dot above (Ż) 
.z 
Lowercase “z” with dot above (ż) 
=A 
Uppercase “A” with macron (Ā) 
=a 
Lowercase “a” with macron (ā) 
=E 
Uppercase “E” with macron (Ē) 
=e 
Lowercase “e” with macron (ē) 
=G 
Uppercase “G” with macron (Ḡ) 
=g 
Lowercase “g” with macron (ḡ) 
=I 
Uppercase “I” with macron (Ī) 
=l 
Lowercase “l” with macron (ī) 
=O 
Uppercase “O” with macron (Ō) 
=o 
Lowercase “o” with macron (ō) 
=U 
Uppercase “U” with macron (Ū) 
=u 
Lowercase “u” with macron (ū) 
\ 
Backslash 
^A 
Uppercase “A” with circumflex (Â) 
^a 
Lowercase “a” with circumflex (â) 
^C 
Uppercase “C” with circumflex (Ĉ) 
^c 
Lowercase “c” with circumflex (ĉ) 
^E 
Uppercase “E” with circumflex (Ê) 
^e 
Lowercase “e” with circumflex (ê) 
^G 
Uppercase “G” with circumflex (Ĝ) 
^g 
Lowercase “g” with circumflex (ĝ) 
^H 
Uppercase “H” with circumflex (Ĥ) 
^h 
Lowercase “h” with circumflex (ĥ) 
^I 
Uppercase “I” with circumflex (Î) 
^i 
Lowercase “i” with circumflex (î) 
^J 
Uppercase “J” with circumflex (Ĵ) 
^j 
Lowercase “j” with circumflex (ĵ) 
^O 
Uppercase “O” with circumflex (Ô) 
^o 
Lowercase “o” with circumflex (ô) 
^S 
Uppercase “S” with circumflex (Ŝ) 
^s 
Lowercase “s” with circumflex (ŝ) 
^U 
Uppercase “U” with circumflex (Û) 
^u 
Lowercase “u” with circumflex (û) 
^W 
Uppercase “W” with circumflex (Ŵ) 
^w 
Lowercase “w” with circumflex (ŵ) 
^Y 
Uppercase “Y” with circumflex (Ŷ) 
^y 
Lowercase “y” with circumflex (ŷ) 
^Z 
Uppercase “Z” with circumflex (Ẑ) 
^z 
Lowercase “z” with circumflex (ẑ) 
`A 
Uppercase “A” with grave (À) 
`a 
Lowercase “a” with grave (à) 
`E 
Uppercase “E” with grave (È) 
`e 
Lowercase “e” with grave (è) 
`I 
Uppercase “I” with grave (Ì) 
`i 
Lowercase “i” with grave (ì) 
`K 
Uppercase “K” with grave (Ḱ) 
`N 
Uppercase “N” with grave (Ǹ) 
`n 
Lowercase “n” with grave (ǹ) 
`O 
Uppercase “O” with grave (Ò) 
`o 
Lowercase “o” with grave (ò) 
`U 
Uppercase “U” with grave (Ù) 
`u 
Lowercase “u” with grave (ù) 
`W 
Uppercase “W” with grave (Ẁ) 
`w 
Lowercase “w” with grave (ẁ) 
`Y 
Uppercase “Y” with grave (Ỳ) 
`y 
Lowercase “y” with grave (ỳ) 
~A 
Uppercase “A” with tilde (Ã) 
~a 
Lowercase “a” with tilde (ã) 
~I 
Uppercase “I” with tilde (Ĩ) 
~i 
Lowercase “i” with tilde (ĩ) 
~O 
Uppercase “O” with tilde (Õ) 
~o 
Lowercase “o” with tilde (õ) 
~V 
Uppercase “V” with tilde (Ṽ) 
~v 
Lowercase “v” with tilde (ṽ) 
~Y 
Uppercase “Y” with tilde (Ỹ) 
~y 
Lowercase “y” with tilde (ỹ) 
AE 
Uppercase ash (Æ) 
ae 
Lowercase ash (æ) 
aleph 
Hebrew character aleph (ℵ) 
backslash 
Backslash 
bD 
Uppercase ‘D’ with bar under (Ḏ) 
bd 
Lowercase ‘d’ with bar under (ḏ) 
beth 
Hebrew character beth (ב) 
cD 
Uppercase ‘D’ with cedilla (Ḑ) 
cd 
Lowercase ‘d’ with cedilla (ḑ) 
cE 
Uppercase ‘E’ with cedilla (Ȩ) 
ce 
Lowercase ‘e’ with cedilla (ȩ) 
cG 
Uppercase ‘G’ with cedilla (Ģ) 
cg 
Lowercase ‘g’ with cedilla (ģ) 
cH 
Uppercase ‘H’ with cedilla (Ḩ) 
ch 
Lowercase ‘h’ with cedilla (ḩ) 
cK 
Uppercase ‘K’ with cedilla (Ķ) 
ck 
Lowercase ‘k’ with cedilla (ķ) 
cL 
Uppercase ‘L’ with cedilla (Ļ) 
cl 
Lowercase ‘l’ with cedilla (ļ) 
cN 
Uppercase ‘N’ with cedilla (Ņ) 
cn 
Lowercase ‘n’ with cedilla (ņ) 
copyright 
Copyright (©) 
cR 
Uppercase ‘R’ with cedilla (Ŗ) 
cr 
Lowercase ‘r’ with cedilla (ŗ) 
cS 
Uppercase ‘S’ with cedilla (Ş) 
cs 
Lowercase ‘s’ with cedilla (ş) 
cT 
Uppercase ‘T’ with cedilla (Ţ) 
ct 
Lowercase ‘t’ with cedilla (ţ) 
dA 
Uppercase ‘A’ with dot below (Ạ) 
da 
Lowercase ‘a’ with dot below (ạ) 
dag 
Daggar (†) 
daleth 
Hebrew character daleth (ד) 
dB 
Uppercase ‘B’ with dot below (Ḅ) 
db 
Lowercase ‘b’ with dot below (ḅ) 
ddat 
Double dagger (‡) 
dD 
Uppercase ‘D’ with dot below (Ḍ) 
de 
Lowercase ‘e’ with dot below (ẹ) 
DH 
Futhark uppercase eth (Ð) 
dh 
Futhark lowercase eth (ð) 
dI 
Uppercase ‘I’ with dot below (Ị) 
di 
Lowercase ‘i’ with dot below (ị) 
digamma 
Greek lowercase digamma (ϝ) 
dK 
Uppercase ‘K’ with dot below (Ḳ) 
dk 
Lowercase ‘k’ with dot below (ḳ) 
dL 
Uppercase ‘L’ with dot below (Ḷ) 
dl 
Lowercase ‘l’ with dot below (ḷ) 
dM 
Uppercase ‘M’ with dot below (Ṃ) 
dm 
Lowercase ‘m’ with dot below (ṃ) 
dN 
Uppercase ‘N’ with dot below (Ṇ) 
dn 
Lowercase ‘n’ with dot below (ṇ) 
dO 
Uppercase ‘O’ with dot below (Ọ) 
do 
Lowercase ‘o’ with dot below (ọ) 
Downarrow 
Downward arrow (⇓) 
downarrow 
Downward arrow (↓) 
dR 
Uppercase ‘R’ with dot below (Ṛ) 
dr 
Lowercase ‘r’ with dot below (ṛ) 
dS 
Uppercase ‘S’ with dot below (Ṣ) 
ds 
Lowercase ‘s’ with dot below (ṣ) 
dT 
Uppercase ‘T’ with dot below (Ṭ) 
dt 
Lowercase ‘t’ with dot below (ṭ) 
dU 
Uppercase ‘U’ with dot below (Ụ) 
du 
Lowercase ‘u’ with dot below (ụ) 
dV 
Uppercase ‘V’ with dot below (Ṿ) 
dv 
Lowercase ‘v’ with dot below (ṿ) 
dW 
Uppercase ‘W’ with dot below (Ẉ) 
dw 
Lowercase ‘w’ with dot below (ẉ) 
dY 
Uppercase ‘Y’ with dot below (Ỵ) 
dy 
Lowercase ‘y’ with dot below (ỵ) 
dZ 
Uppercase ‘Z’ with dot below (Ẓ) 
dz 
Lowercase ‘z’ with dot below (ẓ) 
d{H} 
Uppercase ‘H’ with dot below (Ḥ) 
d{h} 
Lowercase ‘h’ with dot below (ḥ) 
gimel 
Hebrew character gimel (ג) 
guillemotleft 
Left guillemet («) 
guillemotright 
Right guillemet (») 
hbar 
Planck’s contant symbol (ℏ) 
HO 
Uppercase ‘O’ with hungarumlaut (Ő) 
Ho 
Lowercase ‘o’ with hungarumlaut (ő) 
HU 
Uppercase ‘U’ with hungarumlaut (Ű) 
Hu 
Lowercase ‘u’ with hungarumlaut (ű) 
IJ 
Uppercase ‘ij’ digraph (Ĳ) 
ij 
Lowercase ‘ij’ digraph (ĳ) 
kA 
Uppercase ‘A’ with ogonek (Ą) 
ka 
Lowercase ‘a’ with ogonek (ą) 
kE 
Uppercase ‘E’ with ogonek (Ę) 
ke 
Lowercase ‘e’ with ogonek (ę) 
kI 
Uppercase ‘I’ with ogonek (Į) 
ki 
Lowercase ‘i’ with ogonek (į) 
kU 
Uppercase ‘U’ with ogonek (Ų) 
ku 
Lowercase ‘u’ with ogonek (ų) 
L 
Uppercase ‘L’ with stroke (Ł) 
Leftarrow 
Left arrow (⇐) 
leftarrow 
Left arrow (←) 
Leftrightarrow 
Left, right arrow (⇔) 
leftrightarrow 
Left, right arrow (↔) 
l 
Lowercase ‘l’ with stroke (ł) 
mho 
mho/admittance symbol (℧) 
NG 
Uppercase eng (Ŋ) 
ng 
Lowercase eng (ŋ) 
O 
Uppercase ‘O’ with slash (Ø) 
OE 
Uppercase ligature ‘oe’ (Œ) 
oe 
Lowercase ligature ‘oe’ (œ) 
o 
Lowercase ‘o’ with slash (ø) 
P 
Pilcrow (¶) 
pounds 
Pounds (£) 
Rightarrow 
Right arrow (⇒) 
rightarrow 
Right arrow (→) 
rU 
Uppercase ‘U’ with ring (Ů) 
ru 
Lowercase ‘u’ with ring (ů) 
rw 
Lowercase ‘w’ with ring (ẘ) 
ry 
Lowercase ‘y’ with ring (ẙ) 
S 
Section (§) 
SS 
Uppercase eszett (ẞ) 
ss 
Lowercase eszett (ß) 
textexclaimdown 
Inverted exclamation point (¡) 
textquestiondown 
Inverted question mark (¿) 
textyen 
Yen (¥) 
TH 
Futhark uppercase thorn (Þ) 
th 
Futhark lowercase thorn (þ) 
uA 
Uppercase ‘A’ with breve (Ă) 
ua 
Lowercase ‘a’ with breve (ă) 
uE 
Uppercase ‘E’ with breve (Ĕ) 
ue 
Lowercase ‘e’ with breve (ĕ) 
uG 
Uppercase ‘G’ with breve (Ğ) 
ug 
Lowercase ‘g’ with breve (ğ) 
uI 
Uppercase ‘I’ with breve (Ĭ) 
ui 
Lowercase ‘i’ with breve (ĭ) 
uO 
Uppercase ‘O’ with breve (Ŏ) 
uo 
Lowercase ‘o’ with breve (ŏ) 
Uparrow 
Upward arrow (⇑) 
uparrow 
Upward arrow (↑) 
Updownarrow 
Up, down arrow (⇕) 
updownarrow 
Up, down arrow (↕) 
uU 
Uppercase ‘U’ with breve (Ŭ) 
uu 
Lowercase ‘u’ with breve (ŭ) 
vC 
Uppercase ‘C’ with caron (Č) 
vc 
Lowercase ‘c’ with caron (č) 
vD 
Uppercase ‘D’ with caron (Ď) 
vE 
Uppercase ‘E’ with caron (Ě) 
ve 
Lowercase ‘e’ with caron (ě) 
vG 
Uppercase ‘G’ with caron (Ǧ) 
vg 
Lowercase ‘g’ with caron (ǧ) 
vH 
Uppercase ‘H’ with caron (Ȟ) 
vh 
Lowercase ‘h’ with caron (ȟ) 
vK 
Uppercase ‘K’ with caron (Ǩ) 
vk 
Lowercase ‘k’ with caron (ǩ) 
vO 
Uppercase ‘O’ with caron (Ǒ) 
vo 
Lowercase ‘o’ with caron (ǒ) 
vR 
Uppercase ‘R’ with caron (Ř) 
vr 
Lowercase ‘r’ with caron (ř) 
vS 
Uppercase ‘S’ with caron (Š) 
vs 
Lowercase ‘s’ with caron (š) 
vT 
Uppercase ‘T’ with caron (Ť) 
vU 
Uppercase ‘U’ with caron (Ǔ) 
vu 
Lowercase ‘u’ with caron (ǔ) 
vZ 
Uppercase ‘Z’ with caron (Ž) 
vz 
Lowercase ‘z’ with caron (ž) 
Special Value Commands¶
Table 53 lists all special value commands.
Command 
Description 

bset 
Boolean type 
cset 
Complex type 
econst 
Special value e, 2.718… 
emptysetconst 
Special value null set 
epsilonconst 
Special value machine epsilon 
false 
Special value ‘false’ 
infty 
Infinity, ∞ 
iset 
Integer type 
lit 
Insert a literal 
mathbb{B} 
Boolean type 
mathbb{C} 
Complex type 
mathbb{R} 
Real type 
mathbb{Z} 
Integer type 
piconst 
Special value pi, 3.14… 
rset 
Real type 
true 
Special value ‘true’ 
varnothing 
Special value null set 