Backslash Commands

This section lists all supported backslash commands. Note that only a subset of the commands listed will be available at any time.

Alphabetical Command List

Table 44 lists all backslash commands in alphabetical order.

Table 44 Alphabetical List Of Commands

Command

Category

Description

!

Operator

Factorial operator

“A

Special Character

Uppercase ‘A’ with umlaut (Ä)

“a

Special Character

Lowercase “a” with umlaut (ä)

“E

Special Character

Uppercase ‘E’ with umlaut (Ë)

“e

Special Character

Lowercase “e” with umlaut (ë)

“H

Special Character

Uppercase ‘H’ with umlaut (Ḧ)

“h

Special Character

Lowercase “h” with umlaut (ḧ)

“I

Special Character

Uppercase ‘I’ with umlaut (Ï)

“i

Special Character

Lowercase “i” with umlaut (ï)

“O

Special Character

Uppercase ‘O’ with umlaut (Ö)

“o

Special Character

Lowercase “o” with umlaut (ӧ)

“t

Special Character

Lowercase “t” with umlaut (ẗ)

“U

Special Character

Uppercase ‘U’ with umlaut (Ü)

“u

Special Character

Lowercase “u” with umlaut (ü)

“W

Special Character

Uppercase “W” with umlaut (Ẅ)

“w

Special Character

Lowercase “w” with umlaut (ẅ)

“X

Special Character

Uppercase “X” with umlaut (Ẍ)

“x

Special Character

Lowercase “x” with umlaut (ẍ)

“y

Special Character

Lowercase “y” with umlaut (ӱ)

‘A

Special Character

Uppercase “A” with acute (Á)

‘a

Special Character

Lowercase “a” with acute (á)

‘C

Special Character

Uppercase “C” with acute (Ć)

‘c

Special Character

Lowercase “c” with acute (ć)

‘E

Special Character

Uppercase “E” with acute (É)

‘e

Special Character

Lowercase “e” with acute (é)

‘G

Special Character

Uppercase “G” with acute (Ǵ)

‘g

Special Character

Lowercase “g” with acute (ǵ)

‘I

Special Character

Uppercase “I” with acute (Í)

‘i

Special Character

Lowercase “i” with acute (í)

‘k

Special Character

Lowercase “k” with acute (ḱ)

‘M

Special Character

Uppercase “M” with acute (Ḿ)

‘m

Special Character

Lowercase “m” with acute (ḿ)

‘O

Special Character

Uppercase “O” with acute (Ó)

‘o

Special Character

Lowercase “o” with acute (ó)

‘P

Special Character

Uppercase “P” with acute (Ṕ)

‘p

Special Character

Lowercase “p” with acute (ṕ)

‘U

Special Character

Uppercase “U” with acute (Ú)

‘u

Special Character

Lowercase “u” with acute (ú)

‘W

Special Character

Uppercase “W” with acute (Ẃ)

‘w

Special Character

Lowercase “w” with acute (ẃ)

‘Y

Special Character

Uppercase “Y” with acute (Ý)

‘y

Special Character

Lowercase “y” with acute (ý)

(

Operator

Parenthesis grouping operator.

*

Operator

Multiplication operator. Multiplies two values

**

Operator

Power operator

+

Operator

Addition operator.

-

Operator

Subtraction operator. Subtracts two values. You can also use this operator to perform set relative complement or set difference operations.

.A

Special Character

Uppercase “A” with dot above (Ȧ)

.a

Special Character

Lowercase “a” with dot above (ȧ)

.B

Special Character

Uppercase “B” with dot above (Ḃ)

.b

Special Character

Lowercase “b” with dot above (ḃ)

.C

Special Character

Uppercase “C” with dot above (Ċ)

.c

Special Character

Lowercase “c” with dot above (ċ)

.D

Special Character

Uppercase “D” with dot above (Ḋ)

.d

Special Character

Lowercase “d” with dot above (ḋ)

.E

Special Character

Uppercase “E” with dot above (Ė)

.e

Special Character

Lowercase “e” with dot above (ė)

.F

Special Character

Uppercase “F” with dot above (Ḟ)

.f

Special Character

Lowercase “f” with dot above (ḟ)

.G

Special Character

Uppercase “G” with dot above (Ġ)

.g

Special Character

Lowercase “g” with dot above (ġ)

.H

Special Character

Uppercase “H” with dot above (Ḣ)

.h

Special Character

Lowercase “h” with dot above (ḣ)

.I

Special Character

Uppercase “I” with dot above (İ)

.M

Special Character

Uppercase “M” with dot above (Ṁ)

.m

Special Character

Lowercase “m” with dot above (ṁ)

.N

Special Character

Uppercase “N” with dot above (Ṅ)

.n

Special Character

Lowercase “n” with dot above (ṅ)

.O

Special Character

Uppercase “O” with dot above (Ȯ)

.o

Special Character

Lowercase “o” with dot above (ȯ)

.P

Special Character

Uppercase “P” with dot above (Ṗ)

.p

Special Character

Lowercase “p” with dot above (ṗ)

.R

Special Character

Uppercase “R” with dot above (Ṙ)

.r

Special Character

Lowercase “r” with dot above (ṙ)

.S

Special Character

Uppercase “S” with dot above (Ṡ)

.s

Special Character

Lowercase “s” with dot above (ṡ)

.T

Special Character

Uppercase “T” with dot above (Ṫ)

.t

Special Character

Lowercase “t” with dot above (ṫ)

.W

Special Character

Uppercase “W” with dot above (Ẇ)

.w

Special Character

Lowercase “w” with dot above (ẇ)

.X

Special Character

Uppercase “X” with dot above (Ẋ)

.x

Special Character

Lowercase “x” with dot above (ẋ)

.Y

Special Character

Uppercase “Y” with dot above (Ẏ)

.y

Special Character

Lowercase “y” with dot above (ẏ)

.Z

Special Character

Uppercase “Z” with dot above (Ż)

.z

Special Character

Lowercase “z” with dot above (ż)

<

Operator

Less than relational operator.

=

Operator

Assignment operator and is equal to relational operator. Assign value to a variable, define a function, or compare two values.

=A

Special Character

Uppercase “A” with macron (Ā)

=a

Special Character

Lowercase “a” with macron (ā)

=E

Special Character

Uppercase “E” with macron (Ē)

=e

Special Character

Lowercase “e” with macron (ē)

=G

Special Character

Uppercase “G” with macron (Ḡ)

=g

Special Character

Lowercase “g” with macron (ḡ)

=I

Special Character

Uppercase “I” with macron (Ī)

=l

Special Character

Lowercase “l” with macron (ī)

=O

Special Character

Uppercase “O” with macron (Ō)

=o

Special Character

Lowercase “o” with macron (ō)

=U

Special Character

Uppercase “U” with macron (Ū)

=u

Special Character

Lowercase “u” with macron (ū)

>

Operator

Greater than relational operator.

[

Operator

Brackets grouping operator.

\

Special Character

Backslash

^

Operator

Power operator

^A

Special Character

Uppercase “A” with circumflex (Â)

^a

Special Character

Lowercase “a” with circumflex (â)

^C

Special Character

Uppercase “C” with circumflex (Ĉ)

^c

Special Character

Lowercase “c” with circumflex (ĉ)

^E

Special Character

Uppercase “E” with circumflex (Ê)

^e

Special Character

Lowercase “e” with circumflex (ê)

^G

Special Character

Uppercase “G” with circumflex (Ĝ)

^g

Special Character

Lowercase “g” with circumflex (ĝ)

^H

Special Character

Uppercase “H” with circumflex (Ĥ)

^h

Special Character

Lowercase “h” with circumflex (ĥ)

^I

Special Character

Uppercase “I” with circumflex (Î)

^i

Special Character

Lowercase “i” with circumflex (î)

^J

Special Character

Uppercase “J” with circumflex (Ĵ)

^j

Special Character

Lowercase “j” with circumflex (ĵ)

^O

Special Character

Uppercase “O” with circumflex (Ô)

^o

Special Character

Lowercase “o” with circumflex (ô)

^S

Special Character

Uppercase “S” with circumflex (Ŝ)

^s

Special Character

Lowercase “s” with circumflex (ŝ)

^U

Special Character

Uppercase “U” with circumflex (Û)

^u

Special Character

Lowercase “u” with circumflex (û)

^W

Special Character

Uppercase “W” with circumflex (Ŵ)

^w

Special Character

Lowercase “w” with circumflex (ŵ)

^Y

Special Character

Uppercase “Y” with circumflex (Ŷ)

^y

Special Character

Lowercase “y” with circumflex (ŷ)

^Z

Special Character

Uppercase “Z” with circumflex (Ẑ)

^z

Special Character

Lowercase “z” with circumflex (ẑ)

_

Operator

Subscripting operator, row & column

Operator

Subscripting operator, single index

`A

Special Character

Uppercase “A” with grave (À)

`a

Special Character

Lowercase “a” with grave (à)

`E

Special Character

Uppercase “E” with grave (È)

`e

Special Character

Lowercase “e” with grave (è)

`I

Special Character

Uppercase “I” with grave (Ì)

`i

Special Character

Lowercase “i” with grave (ì)

`K

Special Character

Uppercase “K” with grave (Ḱ)

`N

Special Character

Uppercase “N” with grave (Ǹ)

`n

Special Character

Lowercase “n” with grave (ǹ)

`O

Special Character

Uppercase “O” with grave (Ò)

`o

Special Character

Lowercase “o” with grave (ò)

`U

Special Character

Uppercase “U” with grave (Ù)

`u

Special Character

Lowercase “u” with grave (ù)

`W

Special Character

Uppercase “W” with grave (Ẁ)

`w

Special Character

Lowercase “w” with grave (ẁ)

`Y

Special Character

Uppercase “Y” with grave (Ỳ)

`y

Special Character

Lowercase “y” with grave (ỳ)

{

Operator

Braces grouping operator.


Operator

Define a compound statement or block.

~A

Special Character

Uppercase “A” with tilde (Ã)

~a

Special Character

Lowercase “a” with tilde (ã)

~I

Special Character

Uppercase “I” with tilde (Ĩ)

~i

Special Character

Lowercase “i” with tilde (ĩ)

~O

Special Character

Uppercase “O” with tilde (Õ)

~o

Special Character

Lowercase “o” with tilde (õ)

~V

Special Character

Uppercase “V” with tilde (Ṽ)

~v

Special Character

Lowercase “v” with tilde (ṽ)

~Y

Special Character

Uppercase “Y” with tilde (Ỹ)

~y

Special Character

Lowercase “y” with tilde (ỹ)

abs

Function

Absolute value, magnitude, determinant, and set cardinality

adjoint

Function

Performs a conjugate transpose of a matrix.

AE

Special Character

Uppercase ash (Æ)

ae

Special Character

Lowercase ash (æ)

aleph

Special Character

Hebrew character aleph (ℵ)

alignc

Formatting

Center text and other elements.

alignj

Formatting

Justify text.

alignl

Formatting

Left align text and other elements.

alignr

Formatting

Right align text and other elements.

Alpha

Greek Character

Greek uppercase alpha (Α)

alpha

Greek Character

Greek lowercase alpha (α)

alphabet

Function

Determine the unique members of a set, tuple, or matrix.

arccos

Function

Arccosine function

arccot

Function

Arccotangent function

arccsc

Function

Arccosecant function

arcosh

Function

Area hyperbolic cosine function

arcoth

Function

Area hyperbolic cotangent function

arcsch

Function

Area hyperbolic cosecant function

arcsec

Function

Arcsecant function

arcsin

Function

Arcsine function

arctan

Function

Arctangent function

arsech

Function

Area hyperbolic secant function

arsinh

Function

Area hyperbolic sine function

artanh

Function

Area hyperbolic tangent function

average

Function

Calculates the average of scalar values in the supplied list.

backslash

Special Character

Backslash

bc

Operator

Calculate a value based on a set of conditions.

bcfmt

Formatting

Modify a brace conditional operator

bD

Special Character

Uppercase ‘D’ with bar under (Ḏ)

bd

Special Character

Lowercase ‘d’ with bar under (ḏ)

bdock

Application

Show/hide the Block dock.

begin{array}

Operator

Insert a new matrix

Beta

Greek Character

Greek uppercase beta (Β)

beta

Greek Character

Greek lowercase beta (β)

betafn

Function

Beta function

beth

Special Character

Hebrew character beth (ב)

bf

Formatting

Boldface text

bfmt

Formatting

Change the block/paragraph format.

bgcolor

Formatting

Highlighting/Font background color

bigcap

Operator

N-ary disjoint union operator.

bigcup

Operator

N-ary union operator.

binomialc

Function

Calculates the binomial cumulative distribution function.

binomialp

Function

Calculates the binomial probability mass function

binomialv

Function

Returns one or more random numbers in an binomial distribution.

bmdock

Application

Show/hide the Basic Math dock

bset

Special Value

Boolean type

cap

Operator

Set binary intersection operator.

cases

Operator

Calculate a value based on a set of conditions.

cauchyc

Function

Calculates the Cauchy cumulative distribution function

cauchyp

Function

Calculates the Cauchy probability density function.

cauchyq

Function

Calculates the Cauchy quantile function.

cauchyv

Function

Returns one or more random numbers in a Cauchy distribution.

cD

Special Character

Uppercase ‘D’ with cedilla (Ḑ)

cd

Special Character

Lowercase ‘d’ with cedilla (ḑ)

cdock

Application

Show/hide the Character dock

cE

Special Character

Uppercase ‘E’ with cedilla (Ȩ)

ce

Special Character

Lowercase ‘e’ with cedilla (ȩ)

ceil

Operator

Ceiling, next higher integer value

cfmt

Formatting

Change the character format.

cG

Special Character

Uppercase ‘G’ with cedilla (Ģ)

cg

Special Character

Lowercase ‘g’ with cedilla (ģ)

cH

Special Character

Uppercase ‘H’ with cedilla (Ḩ)

ch

Special Character

Lowercase ‘h’ with cedilla (ḩ)

Chi

Greek Character

Greek uppercase chi (Χ)

chi

Greek Character

Greek lowercase chi (χ)

chisquaredc

Function

Calculates the chi-squared cumulative distribution function.

chisquaredp

Function

Calculates the chi-squared distribution probability density function.

chisquaredq

Function

Calculates the chi-squared distribution quantile function.

chisquaredv

Function

Returns one or more random numbers in a chi-squared distribution.

cholesky

Function

Performs Cholesky decomposition (creating \(\mathbf{L} \times \mathbf{L} ^ H\))

circ

Operator

Calculates the Hadamard product of two matricies.

cK

Special Character

Uppercase ‘K’ with cedilla (Ķ)

ck

Special Character

Lowercase ‘k’ with cedilla (ķ)

cL

Special Character

Uppercase ‘L’ with cedilla (Ļ)

cl

Special Character

Lowercase ‘l’ with cedilla (ļ)

clrbkp

Debugging

Clears all breakpoints

cN

Special Character

Uppercase ‘N’ with cedilla (Ņ)

cn

Special Character

Lowercase ‘n’ with cedilla (ņ)

color

Formatting

Font color

condnum

Function

Calculates the approximate condition number of a matrix.

conj

Operator

Complex conjugate operator.

conjtran

Function

Performs a conjugate transpose of a matrix.

copyright

Special Character

Copyright (©)

cos

Function

Cosine function

cosh

Function

Hyperbolic cosine function

cot

Function

Cotangent function

coth

Function

Hyperbolic cotangent function

count

Function

Counts scalar values in the supplied list.

cprod

Operator

Cartesian product operator.

cpy

Application

Copy

cR

Special Character

Uppercase ‘R’ with cedilla (Ŗ)

cr

Special Character

Lowercase ‘r’ with cedilla (ŗ)

cS

Special Character

Uppercase ‘S’ with cedilla (Ş)

csc

Function

Cosecant function

csch

Function

Hyperbolic cosecant function

cs

Special Character

Lowercase ‘s’ with cedilla (ş)

cset

Special Value

Complex type

cT

Special Character

Uppercase ‘T’ with cedilla (Ţ)

ct

Special Character

Lowercase ‘t’ with cedilla (ţ)

cup

Operator

Set binary union operator.

cut

Application

Cut

dA

Special Character

Uppercase ‘A’ with dot below (Ạ)

da

Special Character

Lowercase ‘a’ with dot below (ạ)

dag

Special Character

Daggar (†)

daleth

Special Character

Hebrew character daleth (ד)

dB

Special Character

Uppercase ‘B’ with dot below (Ḅ)

db

Special Character

Lowercase ‘b’ with dot below (ḅ)

ddat

Special Character

Double dagger (‡)

dD

Special Character

Uppercase ‘D’ with dot below (Ḍ)

de

Special Character

Lowercase ‘e’ with dot below (ẹ)

Delta

Greek Character

Greek uppercase delta (Δ)

delta

Greek Character

Greek lowercase delta (δ)

dft

Function

Calculates the DFT in one or two dimensions

DH

Special Character

Futhark uppercase eth (Ð)

dh

Special Character

Futhark lowercase eth (ð)

diagent

Function

Returns a column matrix holding the diagnonal entries.

diagonal

Function

Returns a diagonal matrix using the supplied values.

dI

Special Character

Uppercase ‘I’ with dot below (Ị)

di

Special Character

Lowercase ‘i’ with dot below (ị)

Digamma

Greek Character

Greek uppercase digamma (Ϝ)

digamma

Special Character

Greek lowercase digamma (ϝ)

div

Operator

Division operator. Divides two values

dju

Operator

Disjoint union operator.

dK

Special Character

Uppercase ‘K’ with dot below (Ḳ)

dk

Special Character

Lowercase ‘k’ with dot below (ḳ)

dL

Special Character

Uppercase ‘L’ with dot below (Ḷ)

dl

Special Character

Lowercase ‘l’ with dot below (ḷ)

dM

Special Character

Uppercase ‘M’ with dot below (Ṃ)

dm

Special Character

Lowercase ‘m’ with dot below (ṃ)

dN

Special Character

Uppercase ‘N’ with dot below (Ṇ)

dn

Special Character

Lowercase ‘n’ with dot below (ṇ)

dO

Special Character

Uppercase ‘O’ with dot below (Ọ)

do

Special Character

Lowercase ‘o’ with dot below (ọ)

Downarrow

Special Character

Downward arrow (⇓)

downarrow

Special Character

Downward arrow (↓)

dR

Special Character

Uppercase ‘R’ with dot below (Ṛ)

dr

Special Character

Lowercase ‘r’ with dot below (ṛ)

dS

Special Character

Uppercase ‘S’ with dot below (Ṣ)

ds

Special Character

Lowercase ‘s’ with dot below (ṣ)

dT

Special Character

Uppercase ‘T’ with dot below (Ṭ)

dt

Special Character

Lowercase ‘t’ with dot below (ṭ)

dU

Special Character

Uppercase ‘U’ with dot below (Ụ)

du

Special Character

Lowercase ‘u’ with dot below (ụ)

dV

Special Character

Uppercase ‘V’ with dot below (Ṿ)

dv

Special Character

Lowercase ‘v’ with dot below (ṿ)

dW

Special Character

Uppercase ‘W’ with dot below (Ẉ)

dw

Special Character

Lowercase ‘w’ with dot below (ẉ)

dY

Special Character

Uppercase ‘Y’ with dot below (Ỵ)

dy

Special Character

Lowercase ‘y’ with dot below (ỵ)

dZ

Special Character

Uppercase ‘Z’ with dot below (Ẓ)

dz

Special Character

Lowercase ‘z’ with dot below (ẓ)

d{H}

Special Character

Uppercase ‘H’ with dot below (Ḥ)

d{h}

Special Character

Lowercase ‘h’ with dot below (ḥ)

econst

Special Value

Special value e, 2.718…

eigenvectors

Function

Calculates eigenvectors, eigenvalues, and Schur decomposition.

elif

Control Flow

Else-if conditional operator.

else

Control Flow

Else conditional operator.

emptysetconst

Special Value

Special value null set

enorm

Function

Calculates the Euclidean norm of a matrix.

Epsilon

Greek Character

Greek uppercase epsilon (Ε)

epsilonconst

Special Value

Special value machine epsilon

epsilon

Greek Character

Greek lowercase epsilon (ε)

equilibrate

Function

Equilibrates a matrix.

erfc

Function

Complementary error function

erf

Function

Error function

erfinv

Function

Inverse error function

Eta

Greek Character

Greek uppercase eta (Η)

eta

Greek Character

Greek lowercase eta (η)

examples

Application

Open an example

exphtml

Application

Exports your program as a document in HTML format.

expimg

Application

Exports an element of your program as an image.

explatex

Application

Exports your program as a document in LaTeX format.

explib

Application

Exports your program as a dynamic library.

expobj

Application

Exports your program as a binary object.

exponentialc

Function

Calculates the exponential cumulative distribution function.

exponentialp

Function

Calculates the exponential probability density function.

exponentialq

Function

Calculates the exponential quantile function.

exponentialv

Function

Returns one or more random numbers in an exponential distribution.

exppdf

Application

Exports your program as a document in PDF format.

fact

Operator

Factorial operator.

false

Special Value

Special value ‘false’

fclose

Application

Closes the current program file.

feedback

Application

Tell us how to make you more successful.

fileclose

Function

Closes an open file.

filedelete

Function

Deletes a file

fileexists

Function

Determines if a file exists.

fileopenread

Function

Opens a file for reading.

fileopenwrite

Function

Opens a file for reading and writing, content will be preserved.

fileopenwritetruncate

Function

Opens a file for reading and writing, destroying existing content.

filereadbyte

Function

Reads a single byte from a file.

filereadinteger

Function

Reads an integer from a file.

filereadreal

Function

Reads a real value from a file.

filereadstring

Function

Reads a string of text from a file.

fileseek

Function

Seeks to a specific location in a file.

filewritebyte

Function

Writes a single byte to a file.

filewriteinteger

Function

Writes an integer value to a file.

filewritereal

Function

Writes a real value to a file.

filewritestring

Function

Writes a string of text to a file.

find

Function

Finds a sub-tuple within a tuple. Also works for strings.

fliplr

Function

Flip a matrix from left to right, reversing column order.

flipud

Function

Flip a matrix from top to bottom, reversing row order.

floor

Operator

Floor, next lower integer value

fnew

Application

Creates a new program file

fn

Function

Define or use a function.

fopen

Application

Opens an existing program file.

forall

Operator

Iterate through sets, tuple, and matrix values.

foreach

Operator

Iterate through sets, tuple, and matrix values.

frac

Operator

Fraction (division) operator. Divides two values.

fsaveas

Application

Saves the current program under a new name.

fsave

Application

Saves the current program.

Gamma

Greek Character

Greek uppercase gamma (Γ)

gammac

Function

Calculates the gamma cumulative distribution function.

gammafn

Function

Gamma function

gamma

Greek Character

Greek lowercase gamma (γ)

gammap

Function

Calculates the gamma probability density function.

gammaq

Function

Calculates the gamma quantile function.

gammav

Function

Returns one or more random numbers in a gamma distribution.

geometricc

Function

Calculates the geometric cumulative distribution function.

geometricp

Function

Calculates the geometric probability mass function.

geometricv

Function

Returns one or more random numbers in an geometric distribution.

geq

Operator

Greater than or equal to relational operator.

getstarted

Application

Start here !

gimel

Special Character

Hebrew character gimel (ג)

gt

Operator

Greater than relational operator.

guillemotleft

Special Character

Left guillemet («)

guillemotright

Special Character

Right guillemet (»)

hadamard

Operator

Calculates the Hadamard product of two matricies.

hbar

Special Character

Planck’s contant symbol (ℏ)

hdock

Application

Show/hide the Home dock.

help

Application

Help

hessenberg

Function

Performs upper Hessenberg decomposition.

histogram

Function

Calculates the histogram of scalar values in the supplied list.

HO

Special Character

Uppercase ‘O’ with hungarumlaut (Ő)

Ho

Special Character

Lowercase ‘o’ with hungarumlaut (ő)

HU

Special Character

Uppercase ‘U’ with hungarumlaut (Ű)

Hu

Special Character

Lowercase ‘u’ with hungarumlaut (ű)

ibkp

Debugging

Toggles an instruction breakpoint on/off.

idbool

Function

Generates a boolean identity matrix.

idcomp

Function

Generates a complex identity matrix.

idft

Function

Calculates the inverse DFT in one or two dimensions.

idint

Function

Generates an integer identity matrix.

idreal

Function

Generates a real identity matrix.

if

Control Flow

If conditional operator.

IJ

Special Character

Uppercase ‘ij’ digraph (IJ)

ij

Special Character

Lowercase ‘ij’ digraph (ij)

imgdock

Application

Show/hide the Image Format dock.

imgfmt

Formatting

Adjusts image size and orientation

im

Function

Imaginary portion of a value. Also supports matrices.

includegraphics

Formatting

Insert an image from a file.

infty

Special Value

Infinity, ∞

in

Operator

Element Of operator. Sets a variable type or determines if an element is contained in a set.

inorm

Function

Calculates the infinity-norm of a matrix.

insdock

Application

Show/hide the Insert dock.

inspect

Debugging

Inspect variable.

insplt

Formatting

Insert a plot or chart.

intersection

Operator

Set binary intersection operator

Iota

Greek Character

Greek uppercase iota (Ι)

iota

Greek Character

Greek lowercase iota (ι)

iset

Special Value

Integer type

ishermitian

Function

Returns true if a matrix is Hermitian

isnan

Function

Determines if a value is NaN.

isnormal

Function

Returns true if a matrix is normal

isshermitian

Function

Returns true if a matrix is skew Hermitian.

isssymmetric

Function

Returns true if a matrix is skew symmetric.

issymmetric

Function

Returns true if a matrix is symmetric.

it

Formatting

Italicize text

kA

Special Character

Uppercase ‘A’ with ogonek (Ą)

ka

Special Character

Lowercase ‘a’ with ogonek (ą)

Kappa

Greek Character

Greek uppercase kappa (Κ)

kappa

Greek Character

Greek lowercase kappa (κ)

kE

Special Character

Uppercase ‘E’ with ogonek (Ę)

ke

Special Character

Lowercase ‘e’ with ogonek (ę)

kI

Special Character

Uppercase ‘I’ with ogonek (Į)

ki

Special Character

Lowercase ‘i’ with ogonek (į)

kill

Debugging

Stop your program.

kronecker

Operator

Calculates the Kronecker product of two matricies.

kU

Special Character

Uppercase ‘U’ with ogonek (Ų)

ku

Special Character

Lowercase ‘u’ with ogonek (ų)

kurtosis

Function

Calculates the kurtosis of scalar values in the supplied list.

L

Special Character

Uppercase ‘L’ with stroke (Ł)

Lambda

Greek Character

Greek uppercase lambda (Λ)

lambda

Greek Character

Greek lowercase lambda (λ)

lambertw

Function

Lambert W function

land

Operator

Logical AND operator.

lbicond

Operator

Logical biconditional operator.

lbrace

Operator

Braces grouping operator.

lceil

Operator

Ceiling, next higher integer value

lcond

Operator

Logical conditional operator.

ldock

Application

Show/hide the List dock

leastsq

Function

Determines least squares solutions to \(\mathbf{A}\mathbf{x} = \mathbf{y}\) when A or y is over or under determined.

Leftarrow

Special Character

Left arrow (⇐)

leftarrow

Special Character

Left arrow (←)

Leftrightarrow

Special Character

Left, right arrow (⇔)

leftrightarrow

Special Character

Left, right arrow (↔)

leq

Operator

Less than or equal to relational operator.

lfloor

Operator

Floor, next lower integer value

lfmt

Formatting

Enable and modify list formatting of a paragraph.

lit

Special Value

Insert a literal

l

Special Character

Lowercase ‘l’ with stroke (ł)

lnfactorial

Function

Natural log of factorial function

lngamma

Function

Natural log of gamma function

ln

Function

Natural log function

loadaudio

Function

Loads audio into a tuple of row matrices.

loadbooleanmatrix

Function

Loads a boolean matrix from a CSV or binary file.

loadcomplexmatrix

Function

Loads a complex matrix from a CSV or binary file.

loadimage

Function

Loads an image into a tuple containing one matrix per channel.

loadintegermatrix

Function

Loads an integer matrix from a CSV or binary file.

loadrealmatrix

Function

Loads a real matrix from a CSV or binary file.

log

Function

Log base b function

lognormalc

Function

Calculates the log-normal cumulative distribution function.

lognormalp

Function

Calculates the log-normal probability density function.

lognormalq

Function

Calculates the log-normal quantile function.

lognormalv

Function

Returns one or more random numbers in a log-normal distribution.

lor

Operator

Logical OR operator.

lowergammainv

Function

Inverse lower gamma

lowergamma

Function

Lower incomplete gamma function

lq

Function

Performs LQ decomposition

lt

Operator

Less than relational operator.

lxor

Operator

Logical exclusive OR operator.

mathbb{B}

Special Value

Boolean type

mathbb{C}

Special Value

Complex type

mathbb{R}

Special Value

Real type

mathbb{Z}

Special Value

Integer type

matic

Formatting

Insert one or more columns into a matrix.

matir

Formatting

Insert one or more rows into a matrix.

matrc

Formatting

Remove a single column from from a matrix.

matrix

Formatting

Insert a new matrix

matrr

Formatting

Remove a single row from from a matrix.

max

Function

Calculates the maximum of scalar values in the supplied list.

mcomblr

Operator

Combines two matrices into a single matrix. Matrices are stacked left-to-right.

mcombtb

Operator

Combines two matrices into a single matrix. Matrices are stacked top-to-bottom.

median

Function

Calculates the median of scalar values in the supplied list.

mho

Special Character

mho/admittance symbol (℧)

min

Function

Calculates the minimum of scalar values in the supplied list.

minus

Operator

Unary minus operator. Multiplies a value by -1.

mode

Function

Calculates the mode of scalar values in the supplied list.

Mu

Greek Character

Greek uppercase mu (Μ)

mu

Greek Character

Greek lowercase mu (μ)

narydju

Operator

N-ary disjoint union operator.

naryunion

Operator

N-ary union operator.

ncols

Function

Determine the number of columns in a matrix.

neg

Operator

Unary not operator.

ne

Operator

Not equal to relational operator.

neq

Operator

Not equal to relational operator.

NG

Special Character

Uppercase eng (Ŋ)

ng

Special Character

Lowercase eng (ŋ)

ni

Operator

Set contains as member operator.

nint

Operator

Nearest integer, whole value closet to a given value

normalc

Function

Calculates the normal cumulative distribution function.

normalp

Function

Calculates the normal probability density function.

normalq

Function

Calculates the normal quantile function.

normalv

Function

Returns one or more random numbers in a normal distribution.

notin

Operator

Not element of set operator.

notni

Operator

Set contains as member operator.

nroot

Operator

N:super:th root operator

nrows

Function

Determine the number of rows in a matrix.

nsubseteq

Operator

Not subset operator.

nsubset

Operator

Not proper subset operator.

nsupseteq

Operator

Not superset operator.

nsupset

Operator

Not superset operator.

Nu

Greek Character

Greek uppercase nu (Ν)

nu

Greek Character

Greek lowercase nu (ν)

O

Special Character

Uppercase ‘O’ with slash (Ø)

odock

Application

Show/hide the Operator Format dock.

OE

Special Character

Uppercase ligature ‘oe’ (Œ)

oe

Special Character

Lowercase ligature ‘oe’ (œ)

ofmt

Formatting

Modify surrounding parenthesis or operator symbol

Omega

Greek Character

Greek uppercase omega (Ω)

omega

Greek Character

Greek lowercase omega (ω)

Omicron

Greek Character

Greek uppercase omicron (Ο)

omicron

Greek Character

Greek lowercase omicron (ο)

onorm

Function

Calculates the one-norm of a matrix.

o

Special Character

Lowercase ‘o’ with slash (ø)

otimes

Operator

Calculates the Kronecker product of two matricies.

overbar

Operator

Overbar not operator.

overline

Formatting

Overline text

P

Special Character

Pilcrow (¶)

pagebreak

Formatting

Insert a page break.

pause

Debugging

Pause your program.

pdock

Application

Show/hide the Page dock.

pfmt

Formatting

Change the page format.

pgamma

Function

Normalized lower gamma function

Phi

Greek Character

Greek uppercase phi (Φ)

phi

Greek Character

Greek lowercase phi (φ)

Pi

Greek Character

Greek uppercase pi (Π)

piconst

Special Value

Special value pi, 3.14…

pi

Greek Character

Greek lowercase pi (π)

playaudio

Function

Sends audio output to the computer’s audio output device.

pltfmt

Formatting

Formats a plot or chart.

plu

Function

Performs PLU decomposition.

plus

Operator

Unary plus operator. Multiplies a value by +1.

pnorm

Function

Calculates the p-norm of a matrix.

poissonc

Function

Calculates the Poisson cumulative distribution function.

poissonp

Function

Calculates the Poisson probability mass function.

poissonv

Function

Returns one or more random numbers in an Poisson distribution.

pounds

Special Character

Pounds (£)

pow

Operator

Power operator

preferences

Application

Configure the application

Psi

Greek Character

Greek uppercase psi (Ψ)

psi

Greek Character

Greek lowercase psi (ψ)

pst

Application

Paste

qgamma

Function

Normalized upper gamma function

qr

Function

Performs QR decomposition

quit

Application

Quit

range1

Operator

Insert a range with an implied increment of 1

range

Operator

Insert a range with an explicit increment

rank

Function

Returns the matrix rank to within a given tolerance

rayleighc

Function

Calculates the Rayleigh cumulative distribution function

rayleighp

Function

Calculates the Rayleigh distribution probability density function

rayleighq

Function

Calculates the Rayleigh distribution quantile function

rayleighv

Function

Returns one or more random numbers in a Rayleigh distribution

rbrace

Operator

Braces grouping operator.

rceil

Operator

Ceiling, next higher integer value

redo

Application

Redo

re

Function

Real portion of a value. Also supports matrices.

rfloor

Operator

Floor, next lower integer value

Rho

Greek Character

Greek uppercase rho (Ρ)

rho

Greek Character

Greek lowercase rho (ρ)

Rightarrow

Special Character

Right arrow (⇒)

rightarrow

Special Character

Right arrow (→)

rint32

Function

Returns a 32-bit unsigned random integer

rint64

Function

Returns a 64-bit signed random integer

rset

Special Value

Real type

run

Debugging

Run your program

runtohere

Debugging

Run to the cursor

rU

Special Character

Uppercase ‘U’ with ring (Ů)

ru

Special Character

Lowercase ‘u’ with ring (ů)

rw

Special Character

Lowercase ‘w’ with ring (ẘ)

ry

Special Character

Lowercase ‘y’ with ring (ẙ)

S

Special Character

Section (§)

saveaudio

Function

Saves audio samples to a file.

savebooleanmatrix

Function

Saves a boolean matrix to a CSV or binary file.

savecomplexmatrix

Function

Saves a complex matrix to a CSV or binary file.

saveimage

Function

Save an image to a file.

saveintegermatrix

Function

Saves an integer matrix to a CSV or binary file.

saverealmatrix

Function

Saves a real matrix to a CSV or binary file.

schur

Function

Performs Schur decomposition

sech

Function

Hyperbolic secant function

sec

Function

Secant function

selall

Application

Select All

setminus

Operator

Set difference operator.

set

Operator

Insert a set.

Sigma

Greek Character

Greek uppercase sigma (Σ)

sigma

Greek Character

Greek lowercase sigma (σ)

sinh

Function

Hyperbolic sine function

sin

Function

Sine function

sizeof

Operator

Determine the size of a matrix, set, or tuple.

solve

Operator

Solves \(\mathbf{A}\mathbf{x} = \mathbf{y}\) for \(x\) given matrix \(A\) and \(y\)

sortr

Operator

Sorts any iterable type in reverse order.

sort

Operator

Sorts any iterable type.

sout

Formatting

Strikethrough text

split

Function

Splits a tuple into multiple smaller sections. Also works for strings.

sqcup

Operator

Disjoint union operator.

sqrt

Operator

Square root operator

SS

Special Character

Uppercase eszett (ẞ)

sskew

Function

Calculates the sample skew of scalar values in the supplied list.

ss

Special Character

Lowercase eszett (ß)

sstddev

Function

Calculates the sample standard deviation of scalar values in the supplied list.

stddev

Function

Calculates the standard deviation of scalar values in the supplied list.

step

Debugging

Perform the next operation, then stop.

sterling1fn

Function

Unsigned sterling number of the first kind

sterling2fn

Function

Sterling number of the second kind

subseteq

Operator

Subset operator.

subset

Operator

Proper subset operator.

sub

Formatting

subscript text

sum

Function

Calculates the sum of scalar values in the supplied list.

super

Formatting

Superscript text

supseteq

Operator

Superset operator.

supset

Operator

Proper superset operator.

svd

Function

Performs singular value decomposition

symdiff

Operator

Set symmetric difference operator.

systemtime

Function

Determines the system time in mSec.

tabclose

Application

Closes the current tab

tabnew

Application

Creates a new tab

tanh

Function

Hyperbolic tangent function

tan

Function

Tangent function

Tau

Greek Character

Greek uppercase tau (Τ)

tau

Greek Character

Greek lowercase tau (τ)

tcdock

Application

Show/hide the Table cell dock

tdock

Application

Show/hide the Table dock

textbf

Formatting

Boldface text

textexclaimdown

Special Character

Inverted exclamation point (¡)

textit

Formatting

Italicize text

textnormal

Formatting

Restore normal baseline

textquestiondown

Special Character

Inverted question mark (¿)

textsubscript

Formatting

Subscript text

textsuperscript

Formatting

Superscript text

textyen

Special Character

Yen (¥)

tfmt

Formatting

Change table style and settings.

TH

Special Character

Futhark uppercase thorn (Þ)

therefore

Operator

Therefore operator specifies the value of a compound statement.

Theta

Greek Character

Greek uppercase theta (Θ)

theta

Greek Character

Greek lowercase theta (θ)

th

Special Character

Futhark lowercase thorn (þ)

times

Operator

Cartesian product operator.

tostring

Function

Converts a scalar to a string representation

transpose

Operator

Performs a matrix transpose.

triangle

Operator

Set symmetric difference operator.

trng32

Function

Returns a 32-bit unsigned true random integer

trng64

Function

Returns a 64-bit signed true random integer

trngu

Function

Returns a true random uniform value over the range [0, 1]

true

Special Value

Special value ‘true’

tuple

Operator

Insert a tuple

uA

Special Character

Uppercase ‘A’ with breve (Ă)

ua

Special Character

Lowercase ‘a’ with breve (ă)

ucholesky

Function

Performs upper Cholesky decomposition (creating \(\mathbf{U} \times \mathbf{U} ^ H\))

uE

Special Character

Uppercase ‘E’ with breve (Ĕ)

ue

Special Character

Lowercase ‘e’ with breve (ĕ)

uG

Special Character

Uppercase ‘G’ with breve (Ğ)

ug

Special Character

Lowercase ‘g’ with breve (ğ)

uI

Special Character

Uppercase ‘I’ with breve (Ĭ)

ui

Special Character

Lowercase ‘i’ with breve (ĭ)

uline

Formatting

Underline text

ul

Formatting

Underline text

underline

Formatting

Underline text

undo

Application

Undo

uniformex

Function

Returns one or more uniform random numbers over the range (0, 1)

uniforminc

Function

Returns one or more uniform random numbers over the range [0, 1]

union

Operator

Set binary union operator.

uO

Special Character

Uppercase ‘O’ with breve (Ŏ)

uo

Special Character

Lowercase ‘o’ with breve (ŏ)

Uparrow

Special Character

Upward arrow (⇑)

uparrow

Special Character

Upward arrow (↑)

Updownarrow

Special Character

Up, down arrow (⇕)

updownarrow

Special Character

Up, down arrow (↕)

uppergamma

Function

Upper incomplete gamma function

Upsilon

Greek Character

Greek uppercase upsilon (Υ)

upsilon

Greek Character

Greek lowercase upsilon (υ)

uU

Special Character

Uppercase ‘U’ with breve (Ŭ)

uu

Special Character

Lowercase ‘u’ with breve (ŭ)

variance

Function

Calculates the variance of scalar values in the supplied list.

varkappa

Greek Character

Greek lowercase kappa (ϰ)

varnothing

Special Value

Special value null set

varphi

Greek Character

Greek lowercase phi (φ)

varpi

Greek Character

Greek lowercase pi (ϖ)

varsigma

Greek Character

Greek lowercase sigma (ς)

vartheta

Greek Character

Greek lowercase theta (ϑ)

var

Operator

Insert a variable

vC

Special Character

Uppercase ‘C’ with caron (Č)

vc

Special Character

Lowercase ‘c’ with caron (č)

vD

Special Character

Uppercase ‘D’ with caron (Ď)

veebar

Operator

Logical exclusive OR operator.

vE

Special Character

Uppercase ‘E’ with caron (Ě)

ve

Special Character

Lowercase ‘e’ with caron (ě)

vfdock

Application

Show/hide the Value Field Format dock.

vffmt

Formatting

Adjusts the presentation of numerical values.

vf

Formatting

Insert a field that displays the value of a variable.

vG

Special Character

Uppercase ‘G’ with caron (Ǧ)

vg

Special Character

Lowercase ‘g’ with caron (ǧ)

vH

Special Character

Uppercase ‘H’ with caron (Ȟ)

vh

Special Character

Lowercase ‘h’ with caron (ȟ)

vK

Special Character

Uppercase ‘K’ with caron (Ǩ)

vk

Special Character

Lowercase ‘k’ with caron (ǩ)

vO

Special Character

Uppercase ‘O’ with caron (Ǒ)

vo

Special Character

Lowercase ‘o’ with caron (ǒ)

vR

Special Character

Uppercase ‘R’ with caron (Ř)

vr

Special Character

Lowercase ‘r’ with caron (ř)

vS

Special Character

Uppercase ‘S’ with caron (Š)

vs

Special Character

Lowercase ‘s’ with caron (š)

vT

Special Character

Uppercase ‘T’ with caron (Ť)

vU

Special Character

Uppercase ‘U’ with caron (Ǔ)

vu

Special Character

Lowercase ‘u’ with caron (ǔ)

vZ

Special Character

Uppercase ‘Z’ with caron (Ž)

vz

Special Character

Lowercase ‘z’ with caron (ž)

wclose

Application

Closes this window

weibullc

Function

Calculates the Weibull cumulative distribution function.

weibullp

Function

Calculates the Weibull probability density function.

weibullq

Function

Calculates the Weibull quantile function

weibullv

Function

Returns one or more random numbers in a Weibull distribution.

while

Control Flow

Iterate while a condition is met.

wnew

Application

Creates a new window

xcolor

Formatting

Font color

Xi

Greek Character

Greek uppercase xi (Ξ)

xi

Greek Character

Greek lowercase xi (ξ)

zbool

Function

Generates a boolean zero matrix (all values false)

zcomp

Function

Generates a complex zero matrix

Zeta

Greek Character

Greek uppercase zeta (Ζ)

zeta

Greek Character

Greek lowercase zeta (ζ)

zint

Function

Generates an integer zero matrix

zreal

Function

Generates a real zero matrix

Application Commands

Table 45 lists all application commands.

Table 45 Application Commands

Command

Description

bdock

Show/hide the Block dock.

bmdock

Show/hide the Basic Math dock

cdock

Show/hide the Character dock

cpy

Copy

cut

Cut

examples

Open an example

exphtml

Exports your program as a document in HTML format.

expimg

Exports an element of your program as an image.

explatex

Exports your program as a document in LaTeX format.

explib

Exports your program as a dynamic library.

expobj

Exports your program as a binary object.

exppdf

Exports your program as a document in PDF format.

fclose

Closes the current program file.

feedback

Tell us how to make you more successful.

fnew

Creates a new program file

fopen

Opens an existing program file.

fsaveas

Saves the current program under a new name.

fsave

Saves the current program.

getstarted

Start here !

hdock

Show/hide the Home dock.

help

Help

imgdock

Show/hide the Image Format dock.

insdock

Show/hide the Insert dock.

ldock

Show/hide the List dock

odock

Show/hide the Operator Format dock.

pdock

Show/hide the Page dock.

preferences

Configure the application

pst

Paste

quit

Quit

redo

Redo

selall

Select All

tabclose

Closes the current tab

tabnew

Creates a new tab

tcdock

Show/hide the Table cell dock

tdock

Show/hide the Table dock

undo

Undo

vfdock

Show/hide the Value Field Format dock.

wclose

Closes this window

wnew

Creates a new window

Control Flow Commands

Table 46 lists all control flow commands.

Table 46 Control Flow Commands

Command

Description

elif

Else-if conditional operator.

else

Else conditional operator.

if

If conditional operator.

while

Iterate while a condition is met.

Debugging Commands

Table 47 lists all debugging commands.

Table 47 Debugging Commands

Command

Description

clrbkp

Clears all breakpoints

ibkp

Toggles an instruction breakpoint on/off.

inspect

Inspect variable.

kill

Stop your program.

pause

Pause your program.

run

Run your program

runtohere

Run to the cursor

step

Perform the next operation, then stop.

Formatting Commands

Table 48 lists all formatting commands.

Table 48 Formatting Commands

Command

Description

alignc

Center text and other elements.

alignj

Justify text.

alignl

Left align text and other elements.

alignr

Right align text and other elements.

bcfmt

Modify a brace conditional operator

bf

Boldface text

bfmt

Change the block/paragraph format.

bgcolor

Highlighting/Font background color

cfmt

Change the character format.

color

Font color

imgfmt

Adjusts image size and orientation

includegraphics

Insert an image from a file.

insplt

Insert a plot or chart.

it

Italicize text

lfmt

Enable and modify list formatting of a paragraph.

matic

Insert one or more columns into a matrix.

matir

Insert one or more rows into a matrix.

matrc

Remove a single column from from a matrix.

matrix

Insert a new matrix

matrr

Remove a single row from from a matrix.

ofmt

Modify surrounding parenthesis or operator symbol

overline

Overline text

pagebreak

Insert a page break.

pfmt

Change the page format.

pltfmt

Formats a plot or chart.

sout

Strikethrough text

sub

subscript text

super

Superscript text

textbf

Boldface text

textit

Italicize text

textnormal

Restore normal baseline

textsubscript

Subscript text

textsuperscript

Superscript text

tfmt

Change table style and settings.

uline

Underline text

ul

Underline text

underline

Underline text

vffmt

Adjusts the presentation of numerical values.

vf

Insert a field that displays the value of a variable.

xcolor

Font color

Function Commands

Table 49 lists all function commands.

Table 49 Function Commands

Command

Description

abs

Absolute value, magnitude, determinant, and set cardinality

adjoint

Performs a conjugate transpose of a matrix.

alphabet

Determine the unique members of a set, tuple, or matrix.

arccos

Arccosine function

arccot

Arccotangent function

arccsc

Arccosecant function

arcosh

Area hyperbolic cosine function

arcoth

Area hyperbolic cotangent function

arcsch

Area hyperbolic cosecant function

arcsec

Arcsecant function

arcsin

Arcsine function

arctan

Arctangent function

arsech

Area hyperbolic secant function

arsinh

Area hyperbolic sine function

artanh

Area hyperbolic tangent function

average

Calculates the average of scalar values in the supplied list.

betafn

Beta function

binomialc

Calculates the binomial cumulative distribution function.

binomialp

Calculates the binomial probability mass function

binomialv

Returns one or more random numbers in an binomial distribution.

cauchyc

Calculates the Cauchy cumulative distribution function

cauchyp

Calculates the Cauchy probability density function.

cauchyq

Calculates the Cauchy quantile function.

cauchyv

Returns one or more random numbers in a Cauchy distribution.

chisquaredc

Calculates the chi-squared cumulative distribution function.

chisquaredp

Calculates the chi-squared distribution probability density function.

chisquaredq

Calculates the chi-squared distribution quantile function.

chisquaredv

Returns one or more random numbers in a chi-squared distribution.

cholesky

Performs Cholesky decomposition (creating \(\mathbf{L} \times \mathbf{L} ^ H\))

condnum

Calculates the approximate condition number of a matrix.

conjtran

Performs a conjugate transpose of a matrix.

cos

Cosine function

cosh

Hyperbolic cosine function

cot

Cotangent function

coth

Hyperbolic cotangent function

count

Counts scalar values in the supplied list.

csc

Cosecant function

csch

Hyperbolic cosecant function

dft

Calculates the DFT in one or two dimensions

diagent

Returns a column matrix holding the diagnonal entries.

diagonal

Returns a diagonal matrix using the supplied values.

eigenvectors

Calculates eigenvectors, eigenvalues, and Schur decomposition.

enorm

Calculates the Euclidean norm of a matrix.

equilibrate

Equilibrates a matrix.

erfc

Complementary error function

erf

Error function

erfinv

Inverse error function

exponentialc

Calculates the exponential cumulative distribution function.

exponentialp

Calculates the exponential probability density function.

exponentialq

Calculates the exponential quantile function.

exponentialv

Returns one or more random numbers in an exponential distribution.

fileclose

Closes an open file.

filedelete

Deletes a file

fileexists

Determines if a file exists.

fileopenread

Opens a file for reading.

fileopenwrite

Opens a file for reading and writing, content will be preserved.

fileopenwritetruncate

Opens a file for reading and writing, destroying existing content.

filereadbyte

Reads a single byte from a file.

filereadinteger

Reads an integer from a file.

filereadreal

Reads a real value from a file.

filereadstring

Reads a string of text from a file.

fileseek

Seeks to a specific location in a file.

filewritebyte

Writes a single byte to a file.

filewriteinteger

Writes an integer value to a file.

filewritereal

Writes a real value to a file.

filewritestring

Writes a string of text to a file.

find

Finds a sub-tuple within a tuple. Also works for strings.

fliplr

Flip a matrix from left to right, reversing column order.

flipud

Flip a matrix from top to bottom, reversing row order.

fn

Define or use a function.

gammac

Calculates the gamma cumulative distribution function.

gammafn

Gamma function

gammap

Calculates the gamma probability density function.

gammaq

Calculates the gamma quantile function.

gammav

Returns one or more random numbers in a gamma distribution.

geometricc

Calculates the geometric cumulative distribution function.

geometricp

Calculates the geometric probability mass function.

geometricv

Returns one or more random numbers in an geometric distribution.

hessenberg

Performs upper Hessenberg decomposition.

histogram

Calculates the histogram of scalar values in the supplied list.

idbool

Generates a boolean identity matrix.

idcomp

Generates a complex identity matrix.

idft

Calculates the inverse DFT in one or two dimensions.

idint

Generates an integer identity matrix.

idreal

Generates a real identity matrix.

im

Imaginary portion of a value. Also supports matrices.

inorm

Calculates the infinity-norm of a matrix.

ishermitian

Returns true if a matrix is Hermitian

isnan

Determines if a value is NaN.

isnormal

Returns true if a matrix is normal

isshermitian

Returns true if a matrix is skew Hermitian.

isssymmetric

Returns true if a matrix is skew symmetric.

issymmetric

Returns true if a matrix is symmetric.

kurtosis

Calculates the kurtosis of scalar values in the supplied list.

lambertw

Lambert W function

leastsq

Determines least squares solutions to \(\mathbf{A}\mathbf{x} = \mathbf{y}\) when A or y is over or under determined.

lnfactorial

Natural log of factorial function

lngamma

Natural log of gamma function

ln

Natural log function

loadaudio

Loads audio into a tuple of row matrices.

loadbooleanmatrix

Loads a boolean matrix from a CSV or binary file.

loadcomplexmatrix

Loads a complex matrix from a CSV or binary file.

loadimage

Loads an image into a tuple containing one matrix per channel.

loadintegermatrix

Loads an integer matrix from a CSV or binary file.

loadrealmatrix

Loads a real matrix from a CSV or binary file.

log

Log base b function

lognormalc

Calculates the log-normal cumulative distribution function.

lognormalp

Calculates the log-normal probability density function.

lognormalq

Calculates the log-normal quantile function.

lognormalv

Returns one or more random numbers in a log-normal distribution.

lowergammainv

Inverse lower gamma

lowergamma

Lower incomplete gamma function

lq

Performs LQ decomposition

max

Calculates the maximum of scalar values in the supplied list.

median

Calculates the median of scalar values in the supplied list.

min

Calculates the minimum of scalar values in the supplied list.

mode

Calculates the mode of scalar values in the supplied list.

ncols

Determine the number of columns in a matrix.

normalc

Calculates the normal cumulative distribution function.

normalp

Calculates the normal probability density function.

normalq

Calculates the normal quantile function.

normalv

Returns one or more random numbers in a normal distribution.

nrows

Determine the number of rows in a matrix.

onorm

Calculates the one-norm of a matrix.

pgamma

Normalized lower gamma function

playaudio

Sends audio output to the computer’s audio output device.

plu

Performs PLU decomposition.

pnorm

Calculates the p-norm of a matrix.

poissonc

Calculates the Poisson cumulative distribution function.

poissonp

Calculates the Poisson probability mass function.

poissonv

Returns one or more random numbers in an Poisson distribution.

qgamma

Normalized upper gamma function

qr

Performs QR decomposition

rank

Returns the matrix rank to within a given tolerance

rayleighc

Calculates the Rayleigh cumulative distribution function

rayleighp

Calculates the Rayleigh distribution probability density function

rayleighq

Calculates the Rayleigh distribution quantile function

rayleighv

Returns one or more random numbers in a Rayleigh distribution

re

Real portion of a value. Also supports matrices.

rint32

Returns a 32-bit unsigned random integer

rint64

Returns a 64-bit signed random integer

saveaudio

Saves audio samples to a file.

savebooleanmatrix

Saves a boolean matrix to a CSV or binary file.

savecomplexmatrix

Saves a complex matrix to a CSV or binary file.

saveimage

Save an image to a file.

saveintegermatrix

Saves an integer matrix to a CSV or binary file.

saverealmatrix

Saves a real matrix to a CSV or binary file.

schur

Performs Schur decomposition

sech

Hyperbolic secant function

sec

Secant function

sinh

Hyperbolic sine function

sin

Sine function

split

Splits a tuple into multiple smaller sections. Also works for strings.

sskew

Calculates the sample skew of scalar values in the supplied list.

sstddev

Calculates the sample standard deviation of scalar values in the supplied list.

stddev

Calculates the standard deviation of scalar values in the supplied list.

sterling1fn

Unsigned sterling number of the first kind

sterling2fn

Sterling number of the second kind

sum

Calculates the sum of scalar values in the supplied list.

svd

Performs singular value decomposition

systemtime

Determines the system time in mSec.

tanh

Hyperbolic tangent function

tan

Tangent function

tostring

Converts a scalar to a string representation

trng32

Returns a 32-bit unsigned true random integer

trng64

Returns a 64-bit signed true random integer

trngu

Returns a true random uniform value over the range [0, 1]

ucholesky

Performs upper Cholesky decomposition (creating \(\mathbf{U} \times \mathbf{U} ^ H\))

uniformex

Returns one or more uniform random numbers over the range (0, 1)

uniforminc

Returns one or more uniform random numbers over the range [0, 1]

uppergamma

Upper incomplete gamma function

variance

Calculates the variance of scalar values in the supplied list.

weibullc

Calculates the Weibull cumulative distribution function.

weibullp

Calculates the Weibull probability density function.

weibullq

Calculates the Weibull quantile function

weibullv

Returns one or more random numbers in a Weibull distribution.

zbool

Generates a boolean zero matrix (all values false)

zcomp

Generates a complex zero matrix

zint

Generates an integer zero matrix

zreal

Generates a real zero matrix

Greek Character Commands

Table 50 lists all greek character commands.

Table 50 Greek Character Commands

Command

Description

Alpha

Greek uppercase alpha (Α)

alpha

Greek lowercase alpha (α)

Beta

Greek uppercase beta (Β)

beta

Greek lowercase beta (β)

Chi

Greek uppercase chi (Χ)

chi

Greek lowercase chi (χ)

Delta

Greek uppercase delta (Δ)

delta

Greek lowercase delta (δ)

Digamma

Greek uppercase digamma (Ϝ)

Epsilon

Greek uppercase epsilon (Ε)

epsilon

Greek lowercase epsilon (ε)

Eta

Greek uppercase eta (Η)

eta

Greek lowercase eta (η)

Gamma

Greek uppercase gamma (Γ)

gamma

Greek lowercase gamma (γ)

Iota

Greek uppercase iota (Ι)

iota

Greek lowercase iota (ι)

Kappa

Greek uppercase kappa (Κ)

kappa

Greek lowercase kappa (κ)

Lambda

Greek uppercase lambda (Λ)

lambda

Greek lowercase lambda (λ)

Mu

Greek uppercase mu (Μ)

mu

Greek lowercase mu (μ)

Nu

Greek uppercase nu (Ν)

nu

Greek lowercase nu (ν)

Omega

Greek uppercase omega (Ω)

omega

Greek lowercase omega (ω)

Omicron

Greek uppercase omicron (Ο)

omicron

Greek lowercase omicron (ο)

Phi

Greek uppercase phi (Φ)

phi

Greek lowercase phi (φ)

Pi

Greek uppercase pi (Π)

pi

Greek lowercase pi (π)

Psi

Greek uppercase psi (Ψ)

psi

Greek lowercase psi (ψ)

Rho

Greek uppercase rho (Ρ)

rho

Greek lowercase rho (ρ)

Sigma

Greek uppercase sigma (Σ)

sigma

Greek lowercase sigma (σ)

Tau

Greek uppercase tau (Τ)

tau

Greek lowercase tau (τ)

Theta

Greek uppercase theta (Θ)

theta

Greek lowercase theta (θ)

Upsilon

Greek uppercase upsilon (Υ)

upsilon

Greek lowercase upsilon (υ)

varkappa

Greek lowercase kappa (ϰ)

varphi

Greek lowercase phi (φ)

varpi

Greek lowercase pi (ϖ)

varsigma

Greek lowercase sigma (ς)

vartheta

Greek lowercase theta (ϑ)

Xi

Greek uppercase xi (Ξ)

xi

Greek lowercase xi (ξ)

Zeta

Greek uppercase zeta (Ζ)

zeta

Greek lowercase zeta (ζ)

Operator Commands

Table 51 lists all operator commands.

Table 51 Operator Commands

Command

Description

!

Factorial operator

(

Parenthesis grouping operator.

*

Multiplication operator. Multiplies two values

**

Power operator

+

Addition operator.

-

Subtraction operator. Subtracts two values. You can also use this operator to perform set relative complement or set difference operations.

<

Less than relational operator.

=

Assignment operator and is equal to relational operator. Assign value to a variable, define a function, or compare two values.

>

Greater than relational operator.

[

Brackets grouping operator.

^

Power operator

_

Subscripting operator, row & column

Subscripting operator, single index

{

Braces grouping operator.


Define a compound statement or block.

bc

Calculate a value based on a set of conditions.

begin{array}

Insert a new matrix

bigcap

N-ary disjoint union operator.

bigcup

N-ary union operator.

cap

Set binary intersection operator.

cases

Calculate a value based on a set of conditions.

ceil

Ceiling, next higher integer value

circ

Calculates the Hadamard product of two matricies.

conj

Complex conjugate operator.

cprod

Cartesian product operator.

cup

Set binary union operator.

div

Division operator. Divides two values

dju

Disjoint union operator.

fact

Factorial operator.

floor

Floor, next lower integer value

forall

Iterate through sets, tuple, and matrix values.

foreach

Iterate through sets, tuple, and matrix values.

frac

Fraction (division) operator. Divides two values.

geq

Greater than or equal to relational operator.

gt

Greater than relational operator.

hadamard

Calculates the Hadamard product of two matricies.

in

Element Of operator. Sets a variable type or determines if an element is contained in a set.

intersection

Set binary intersection operator

kronecker

Calculates the Kronecker product of two matricies.

land

Logical AND operator.

lbicond

Logical biconditional operator.

lbrace

Braces grouping operator.

lceil

Ceiling, next higher integer value

lcond

Logical conditional operator.

leq

Less than or equal to relational operator.

lfloor

Floor, next lower integer value

lor

Logical OR operator.

lt

Less than relational operator.

lxor

Logical exclusive OR operator.

mcomblr

Combines two matrices into a single matrix. Matrices are stacked left-to-right.

mcombtb

Combines two matrices into a single matrix. Matrices are stacked top-to-bottom.

minus

Unary minus operator. Multiplies a value by -1.

narydju

N-ary disjoint union operator.

naryunion

N-ary union operator.

neg

Unary not operator.

ne

Not equal to relational operator.

neq

Not equal to relational operator.

ni

Set contains as member operator.

nint

Nearest integer, whole value closet to a given value

notin

Not element of set operator.

notni

Set contains as member operator.

nroot

N:super:th root operator

nsubseteq

Not subset operator.

nsubset

Not proper subset operator.

nsupseteq

Not superset operator.

nsupset

Not superset operator.

otimes

Calculates the Kronecker product of two matricies.

overbar

Overbar not operator.

plus

Unary plus operator. Multiplies a value by +1.

pow

Power operator

range1

Insert a range with an implied increment of 1

range

Insert a range with an explicit increment

rbrace

Braces grouping operator.

rceil

Ceiling, next higher integer value

rfloor

Floor, next lower integer value

setminus

Set difference operator.

set

Insert a set.

sizeof

Determine the size of a matrix, set, or tuple.

solve

Solves \(\mathbf{A}\mathbf{x} = \mathbf{y}\) for \(x\) given matrix \(A\) and \(y\)

sortr

Sorts any iterable type in reverse order.

sort

Sorts any iterable type.

sqcup

Disjoint union operator.

sqrt

Square root operator

subseteq

Subset operator.

subset

Proper subset operator.

supseteq

Superset operator.

supset

Proper superset operator.

symdiff

Set symmetric difference operator.

therefore

Therefore operator specifies the value of a compound statement.

times

Cartesian product operator.

transpose

Performs a matrix transpose.

triangle

Set symmetric difference operator.

tuple

Insert a tuple

union

Set binary union operator.

var

Insert a variable

veebar

Logical exclusive OR operator.

Special Character Commands

Table 52 lists all special character commands.

Table 52 Special Character Commands

Command

Description

“A

Uppercase ‘A’ with umlaut (Ä)

“a

Lowercase “a” with umlaut (ä)

“E

Uppercase ‘E’ with umlaut (Ë)

“e

Lowercase “e” with umlaut (ë)

“H

Uppercase ‘H’ with umlaut (Ḧ)

“h

Lowercase “h” with umlaut (ḧ)

“I

Uppercase ‘I’ with umlaut (Ï)

“i

Lowercase “i” with umlaut (ï)

“O

Uppercase ‘O’ with umlaut (Ö)

“o

Lowercase “o” with umlaut (ӧ)

“t

Lowercase “t” with umlaut (ẗ)

“U

Uppercase ‘U’ with umlaut (Ü)

“u

Lowercase “u” with umlaut (ü)

“W

Uppercase “W” with umlaut (Ẅ)

“w

Lowercase “w” with umlaut (ẅ)

“X

Uppercase “X” with umlaut (Ẍ)

“x

Lowercase “x” with umlaut (ẍ)

“y

Lowercase “y” with umlaut (ӱ)

‘A

Uppercase “A” with acute (Á)

‘a

Lowercase “a” with acute (á)

‘C

Uppercase “C” with acute (Ć)

‘c

Lowercase “c” with acute (ć)

‘E

Uppercase “E” with acute (É)

‘e

Lowercase “e” with acute (é)

‘G

Uppercase “G” with acute (Ǵ)

‘g

Lowercase “g” with acute (ǵ)

‘I

Uppercase “I” with acute (Í)

‘i

Lowercase “i” with acute (í)

‘k

Lowercase “k” with acute (ḱ)

‘M

Uppercase “M” with acute (Ḿ)

‘m

Lowercase “m” with acute (ḿ)

‘O

Uppercase “O” with acute (Ó)

‘o

Lowercase “o” with acute (ó)

‘P

Uppercase “P” with acute (Ṕ)

‘p

Lowercase “p” with acute (ṕ)

‘U

Uppercase “U” with acute (Ú)

‘u

Lowercase “u” with acute (ú)

‘W

Uppercase “W” with acute (Ẃ)

‘w

Lowercase “w” with acute (ẃ)

‘Y

Uppercase “Y” with acute (Ý)

‘y

Lowercase “y” with acute (ý)

.A

Uppercase “A” with dot above (Ȧ)

.a

Lowercase “a” with dot above (ȧ)

.B

Uppercase “B” with dot above (Ḃ)

.b

Lowercase “b” with dot above (ḃ)

.C

Uppercase “C” with dot above (Ċ)

.c

Lowercase “c” with dot above (ċ)

.D

Uppercase “D” with dot above (Ḋ)

.d

Lowercase “d” with dot above (ḋ)

.E

Uppercase “E” with dot above (Ė)

.e

Lowercase “e” with dot above (ė)

.F

Uppercase “F” with dot above (Ḟ)

.f

Lowercase “f” with dot above (ḟ)

.G

Uppercase “G” with dot above (Ġ)

.g

Lowercase “g” with dot above (ġ)

.H

Uppercase “H” with dot above (Ḣ)

.h

Lowercase “h” with dot above (ḣ)

.I

Uppercase “I” with dot above (İ)

.M

Uppercase “M” with dot above (Ṁ)

.m

Lowercase “m” with dot above (ṁ)

.N

Uppercase “N” with dot above (Ṅ)

.n

Lowercase “n” with dot above (ṅ)

.O

Uppercase “O” with dot above (Ȯ)

.o

Lowercase “o” with dot above (ȯ)

.P

Uppercase “P” with dot above (Ṗ)

.p

Lowercase “p” with dot above (ṗ)

.R

Uppercase “R” with dot above (Ṙ)

.r

Lowercase “r” with dot above (ṙ)

.S

Uppercase “S” with dot above (Ṡ)

.s

Lowercase “s” with dot above (ṡ)

.T

Uppercase “T” with dot above (Ṫ)

.t

Lowercase “t” with dot above (ṫ)

.W

Uppercase “W” with dot above (Ẇ)

.w

Lowercase “w” with dot above (ẇ)

.X

Uppercase “X” with dot above (Ẋ)

.x

Lowercase “x” with dot above (ẋ)

.Y

Uppercase “Y” with dot above (Ẏ)

.y

Lowercase “y” with dot above (ẏ)

.Z

Uppercase “Z” with dot above (Ż)

.z

Lowercase “z” with dot above (ż)

=A

Uppercase “A” with macron (Ā)

=a

Lowercase “a” with macron (ā)

=E

Uppercase “E” with macron (Ē)

=e

Lowercase “e” with macron (ē)

=G

Uppercase “G” with macron (Ḡ)

=g

Lowercase “g” with macron (ḡ)

=I

Uppercase “I” with macron (Ī)

=l

Lowercase “l” with macron (ī)

=O

Uppercase “O” with macron (Ō)

=o

Lowercase “o” with macron (ō)

=U

Uppercase “U” with macron (Ū)

=u

Lowercase “u” with macron (ū)

\

Backslash

^A

Uppercase “A” with circumflex (Â)

^a

Lowercase “a” with circumflex (â)

^C

Uppercase “C” with circumflex (Ĉ)

^c

Lowercase “c” with circumflex (ĉ)

^E

Uppercase “E” with circumflex (Ê)

^e

Lowercase “e” with circumflex (ê)

^G

Uppercase “G” with circumflex (Ĝ)

^g

Lowercase “g” with circumflex (ĝ)

^H

Uppercase “H” with circumflex (Ĥ)

^h

Lowercase “h” with circumflex (ĥ)

^I

Uppercase “I” with circumflex (Î)

^i

Lowercase “i” with circumflex (î)

^J

Uppercase “J” with circumflex (Ĵ)

^j

Lowercase “j” with circumflex (ĵ)

^O

Uppercase “O” with circumflex (Ô)

^o

Lowercase “o” with circumflex (ô)

^S

Uppercase “S” with circumflex (Ŝ)

^s

Lowercase “s” with circumflex (ŝ)

^U

Uppercase “U” with circumflex (Û)

^u

Lowercase “u” with circumflex (û)

^W

Uppercase “W” with circumflex (Ŵ)

^w

Lowercase “w” with circumflex (ŵ)

^Y

Uppercase “Y” with circumflex (Ŷ)

^y

Lowercase “y” with circumflex (ŷ)

^Z

Uppercase “Z” with circumflex (Ẑ)

^z

Lowercase “z” with circumflex (ẑ)

`A

Uppercase “A” with grave (À)

`a

Lowercase “a” with grave (à)

`E

Uppercase “E” with grave (È)

`e

Lowercase “e” with grave (è)

`I

Uppercase “I” with grave (Ì)

`i

Lowercase “i” with grave (ì)

`K

Uppercase “K” with grave (Ḱ)

`N

Uppercase “N” with grave (Ǹ)

`n

Lowercase “n” with grave (ǹ)

`O

Uppercase “O” with grave (Ò)

`o

Lowercase “o” with grave (ò)

`U

Uppercase “U” with grave (Ù)

`u

Lowercase “u” with grave (ù)

`W

Uppercase “W” with grave (Ẁ)

`w

Lowercase “w” with grave (ẁ)

`Y

Uppercase “Y” with grave (Ỳ)

`y

Lowercase “y” with grave (ỳ)

~A

Uppercase “A” with tilde (Ã)

~a

Lowercase “a” with tilde (ã)

~I

Uppercase “I” with tilde (Ĩ)

~i

Lowercase “i” with tilde (ĩ)

~O

Uppercase “O” with tilde (Õ)

~o

Lowercase “o” with tilde (õ)

~V

Uppercase “V” with tilde (Ṽ)

~v

Lowercase “v” with tilde (ṽ)

~Y

Uppercase “Y” with tilde (Ỹ)

~y

Lowercase “y” with tilde (ỹ)

AE

Uppercase ash (Æ)

ae

Lowercase ash (æ)

aleph

Hebrew character aleph (ℵ)

backslash

Backslash

bD

Uppercase ‘D’ with bar under (Ḏ)

bd

Lowercase ‘d’ with bar under (ḏ)

beth

Hebrew character beth (ב)

cD

Uppercase ‘D’ with cedilla (Ḑ)

cd

Lowercase ‘d’ with cedilla (ḑ)

cE

Uppercase ‘E’ with cedilla (Ȩ)

ce

Lowercase ‘e’ with cedilla (ȩ)

cG

Uppercase ‘G’ with cedilla (Ģ)

cg

Lowercase ‘g’ with cedilla (ģ)

cH

Uppercase ‘H’ with cedilla (Ḩ)

ch

Lowercase ‘h’ with cedilla (ḩ)

cK

Uppercase ‘K’ with cedilla (Ķ)

ck

Lowercase ‘k’ with cedilla (ķ)

cL

Uppercase ‘L’ with cedilla (Ļ)

cl

Lowercase ‘l’ with cedilla (ļ)

cN

Uppercase ‘N’ with cedilla (Ņ)

cn

Lowercase ‘n’ with cedilla (ņ)

copyright

Copyright (©)

cR

Uppercase ‘R’ with cedilla (Ŗ)

cr

Lowercase ‘r’ with cedilla (ŗ)

cS

Uppercase ‘S’ with cedilla (Ş)

cs

Lowercase ‘s’ with cedilla (ş)

cT

Uppercase ‘T’ with cedilla (Ţ)

ct

Lowercase ‘t’ with cedilla (ţ)

dA

Uppercase ‘A’ with dot below (Ạ)

da

Lowercase ‘a’ with dot below (ạ)

dag

Daggar (†)

daleth

Hebrew character daleth (ד)

dB

Uppercase ‘B’ with dot below (Ḅ)

db

Lowercase ‘b’ with dot below (ḅ)

ddat

Double dagger (‡)

dD

Uppercase ‘D’ with dot below (Ḍ)

de

Lowercase ‘e’ with dot below (ẹ)

DH

Futhark uppercase eth (Ð)

dh

Futhark lowercase eth (ð)

dI

Uppercase ‘I’ with dot below (Ị)

di

Lowercase ‘i’ with dot below (ị)

digamma

Greek lowercase digamma (ϝ)

dK

Uppercase ‘K’ with dot below (Ḳ)

dk

Lowercase ‘k’ with dot below (ḳ)

dL

Uppercase ‘L’ with dot below (Ḷ)

dl

Lowercase ‘l’ with dot below (ḷ)

dM

Uppercase ‘M’ with dot below (Ṃ)

dm

Lowercase ‘m’ with dot below (ṃ)

dN

Uppercase ‘N’ with dot below (Ṇ)

dn

Lowercase ‘n’ with dot below (ṇ)

dO

Uppercase ‘O’ with dot below (Ọ)

do

Lowercase ‘o’ with dot below (ọ)

Downarrow

Downward arrow (⇓)

downarrow

Downward arrow (↓)

dR

Uppercase ‘R’ with dot below (Ṛ)

dr

Lowercase ‘r’ with dot below (ṛ)

dS

Uppercase ‘S’ with dot below (Ṣ)

ds

Lowercase ‘s’ with dot below (ṣ)

dT

Uppercase ‘T’ with dot below (Ṭ)

dt

Lowercase ‘t’ with dot below (ṭ)

dU

Uppercase ‘U’ with dot below (Ụ)

du

Lowercase ‘u’ with dot below (ụ)

dV

Uppercase ‘V’ with dot below (Ṿ)

dv

Lowercase ‘v’ with dot below (ṿ)

dW

Uppercase ‘W’ with dot below (Ẉ)

dw

Lowercase ‘w’ with dot below (ẉ)

dY

Uppercase ‘Y’ with dot below (Ỵ)

dy

Lowercase ‘y’ with dot below (ỵ)

dZ

Uppercase ‘Z’ with dot below (Ẓ)

dz

Lowercase ‘z’ with dot below (ẓ)

d{H}

Uppercase ‘H’ with dot below (Ḥ)

d{h}

Lowercase ‘h’ with dot below (ḥ)

gimel

Hebrew character gimel (ג)

guillemotleft

Left guillemet («)

guillemotright

Right guillemet (»)

hbar

Planck’s contant symbol (ℏ)

HO

Uppercase ‘O’ with hungarumlaut (Ő)

Ho

Lowercase ‘o’ with hungarumlaut (ő)

HU

Uppercase ‘U’ with hungarumlaut (Ű)

Hu

Lowercase ‘u’ with hungarumlaut (ű)

IJ

Uppercase ‘ij’ digraph (IJ)

ij

Lowercase ‘ij’ digraph (ij)

kA

Uppercase ‘A’ with ogonek (Ą)

ka

Lowercase ‘a’ with ogonek (ą)

kE

Uppercase ‘E’ with ogonek (Ę)

ke

Lowercase ‘e’ with ogonek (ę)

kI

Uppercase ‘I’ with ogonek (Į)

ki

Lowercase ‘i’ with ogonek (į)

kU

Uppercase ‘U’ with ogonek (Ų)

ku

Lowercase ‘u’ with ogonek (ų)

L

Uppercase ‘L’ with stroke (Ł)

Leftarrow

Left arrow (⇐)

leftarrow

Left arrow (←)

Leftrightarrow

Left, right arrow (⇔)

leftrightarrow

Left, right arrow (↔)

l

Lowercase ‘l’ with stroke (ł)

mho

mho/admittance symbol (℧)

NG

Uppercase eng (Ŋ)

ng

Lowercase eng (ŋ)

O

Uppercase ‘O’ with slash (Ø)

OE

Uppercase ligature ‘oe’ (Œ)

oe

Lowercase ligature ‘oe’ (œ)

o

Lowercase ‘o’ with slash (ø)

P

Pilcrow (¶)

pounds

Pounds (£)

Rightarrow

Right arrow (⇒)

rightarrow

Right arrow (→)

rU

Uppercase ‘U’ with ring (Ů)

ru

Lowercase ‘u’ with ring (ů)

rw

Lowercase ‘w’ with ring (ẘ)

ry

Lowercase ‘y’ with ring (ẙ)

S

Section (§)

SS

Uppercase eszett (ẞ)

ss

Lowercase eszett (ß)

textexclaimdown

Inverted exclamation point (¡)

textquestiondown

Inverted question mark (¿)

textyen

Yen (¥)

TH

Futhark uppercase thorn (Þ)

th

Futhark lowercase thorn (þ)

uA

Uppercase ‘A’ with breve (Ă)

ua

Lowercase ‘a’ with breve (ă)

uE

Uppercase ‘E’ with breve (Ĕ)

ue

Lowercase ‘e’ with breve (ĕ)

uG

Uppercase ‘G’ with breve (Ğ)

ug

Lowercase ‘g’ with breve (ğ)

uI

Uppercase ‘I’ with breve (Ĭ)

ui

Lowercase ‘i’ with breve (ĭ)

uO

Uppercase ‘O’ with breve (Ŏ)

uo

Lowercase ‘o’ with breve (ŏ)

Uparrow

Upward arrow (⇑)

uparrow

Upward arrow (↑)

Updownarrow

Up, down arrow (⇕)

updownarrow

Up, down arrow (↕)

uU

Uppercase ‘U’ with breve (Ŭ)

uu

Lowercase ‘u’ with breve (ŭ)

vC

Uppercase ‘C’ with caron (Č)

vc

Lowercase ‘c’ with caron (č)

vD

Uppercase ‘D’ with caron (Ď)

vE

Uppercase ‘E’ with caron (Ě)

ve

Lowercase ‘e’ with caron (ě)

vG

Uppercase ‘G’ with caron (Ǧ)

vg

Lowercase ‘g’ with caron (ǧ)

vH

Uppercase ‘H’ with caron (Ȟ)

vh

Lowercase ‘h’ with caron (ȟ)

vK

Uppercase ‘K’ with caron (Ǩ)

vk

Lowercase ‘k’ with caron (ǩ)

vO

Uppercase ‘O’ with caron (Ǒ)

vo

Lowercase ‘o’ with caron (ǒ)

vR

Uppercase ‘R’ with caron (Ř)

vr

Lowercase ‘r’ with caron (ř)

vS

Uppercase ‘S’ with caron (Š)

vs

Lowercase ‘s’ with caron (š)

vT

Uppercase ‘T’ with caron (Ť)

vU

Uppercase ‘U’ with caron (Ǔ)

vu

Lowercase ‘u’ with caron (ǔ)

vZ

Uppercase ‘Z’ with caron (Ž)

vz

Lowercase ‘z’ with caron (ž)

Special Value Commands

Table 53 lists all special value commands.

Table 53 Special Value Commands

Command

Description

bset

Boolean type

cset

Complex type

econst

Special value e, 2.718…

emptysetconst

Special value null set

epsilonconst

Special value machine epsilon

false

Special value ‘false’

infty

Infinity, ∞

iset

Integer type

lit

Insert a literal

mathbb{B}

Boolean type

mathbb{C}

Complex type

mathbb{R}

Real type

mathbb{Z}

Integer type

piconst

Special value pi, 3.14…

rset

Real type

true

Special value ‘true’

varnothing

Special value null set